What is the prevalence of latex allergy in the united states

Primary

  • Awareness and understanding that latex allergy remains a relatively high-risk condition for this group.
  • Avoidance of latex-containing products used for personal care, medical care, and community participation (e.g., adhesive bandages, latex gloves, surgeries in medical setting that may not be latex-free.)
  • Avoidance of skin contact with latex protein in the environment and inhalation of powder that contains latex (i.e. gloves).
  • Avoidance of every direct contact to natural rubber latex.
  • Awareness of signs and symptoms of latex allergy.

Secondary

Secondary

  • Persons with known latex allergy routinely wear medical-alert identification.

  • Persons with known latex allergy and their family know the signs of life-threatening anaphylaxis.

Tertiary

Tertiary

  • Persons with known latex allergy and their family own a pre-arranged plan for action in the event of a severe, life-threatening anaphylaxis.


Allergens

Food

Main article: Food allergy

Name Potential reaction(s) Remarks
Balsam of Peru Redness, swelling, itching, allergiccontact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngealmucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantardermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters.

Present in numerous foods, such as coffee, flavored tea, wine, beer, gin, liqueurs, apéritifs (e.g. vermouth, bitters), soft drinks including cola, juice, citrus, citrus fruit peel, marmalade, tomatoes and tomato-containing products, Mexican and Italian foods with red sauces, ketchup, spices (e.g. cloves, Jamaica pepper (allspice), cinnamon, nutmeg, paprika, curry, anise, and ginger), chili sauce, barbecue sauce, chutney, pickles, pickled vegetables, chocolate, vanilla, baked goods and pastries, pudding, ice cream, chewing gum, and candy.

Egg Anaphylaxis, swelling, sometimes flatulence and vomiting An allergic individual may not own any reaction to consuming food only prepared with yolk and not glair, or vice versa.
Fish Respiratory reactions, Anaphylaxis, oral allergy syndrome, sometimes vomiting One of three allergies to seafood, not to be conflated with allergies to crustaceans and mollusks.[1] Fish allergy sufferers own a 50% likelihood of being cross reactive with another fish species,[2] but some individuals are only allergic to one species, such as; tilapia,[3] salmon, [1] or cod.

A proper diagnosis is considered complicated due to these cross reactivity between fish species and other seafood allergies. [4] Hazard extends to exposure to cooking vapors or handling.

Fruit Mild itching, rash, generalized urticaria, oral allergy syndrome, abdominal pain, vomiting, anaphylaxis Mango, strawberries, banana, [5]avocado, and kiwi are common problems.[6] Severe allergies to tomatoes own also been reported.

[7][8]

Garlic Dermatitis, asymmetrical pattern of fissure, thickening/shedding of the outer skin layers,[9]anaphylaxis
Hot peppers Skin rash, hives, throat tightness, tongue swelling, possible vomiting
Oats Dermatitis, respiratory problems, anaphylaxis
Maize Hives, pallor, confusion, dizziness, stomach pain, swelling, vomiting, indigestion, diarrhea, cough, tightness in throat, wheezing, shortness of breath, anaphylaxis Often a hard allergy to manage due to the various food products which contain various forms of corn.

Milk[10] Skin rash, hives, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, stomach pain, flatulence, nasal congestion, dermatitis, blisters, anaphylaxis Not to be confused with lactose intolerance.[11]
Peanut[12] Anaphylaxis and swelling, sometimes vomiting Includes some cold-pressed peanut oils. Distinct from tree nut allergy, as peanuts are legumes.
Poultry Meat[13] Hives, swelling of, or under the dermis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe oral allergy syndrome, shortness of breath, rarely anaphylactic shock Very rare allergies to chicken, turkey, squab, and sometimes more mildly to other avian meats.

Not to be confused with secondary reactions of bird-egg syndrome. The genuine allergy has no causal relationship with egg allergy, nor is there any shut association with red meat allergy. Prevalence still unknown as of 2016.[14]

Red Meat[15] Hives, swelling,[16] dermatitis, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath,[17], rarely anaphylaxis Allergies to the sugar carbohydrate found in beef, venison, lamb, and pork called alpha-gal.

It is brought on by tick bites.[18][19] Allergic reaction to pork is an exception, as it may also be caused by pork-cat syndrome instead of alpha-gal allergy.

Rice Sneezing, runny nose, itching, stomachache, eczema. People with a rice allergy can be affected by eating rice or breathing in rice steam.
Sesame Possible respiratory, skin, and gastrointestinal reactions which can trigger serious systemic anaphylactic responses.[20][21] By law, foods containing sesame must be labeled so in European Union, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.[20]
Shellfish Respiratory symptoms, Anaphylaxis, oral allergy syndrome, gastrointestinal symptoms, rhinitis, conjunctivitis Shellfish allergies are highly cross reactive, but its prevalence is generally higher than that of fish allergy.

As of 2018 six allergens own been identified to prawn alone; along with crab it‘s the major culprit of seafood anaphylaxis.[1] In reference to it as one of the “Big 8” [22] or “major 14” allergens it is sometimes specified as a “crustacean shellfish” allergy, or more simply, a “crustacean allergy”.[23][24] Sometimes it is conflated with an allergy to molluscan shellfish but finish tolerance to one but not the other isn’t unusual. Most generally, a mono-sensitive individual will experience a crustacean allergy alone with tolerance to mollusks, rather than vice versa.[1]

Soy Anaphylaxis, sometimes vomiting
Sulfites Hives, rash, redness of skin, headache (particular frontal), burning behind eyes, breathing difficulties (anaphylaxis) Used as a preserving agent in numerous diverse foods, such as raisins, dried peaches, various other dried fruit, canned or frozen fruits and vegetables, wines, vinegars and processed meats.

What is the prevalence of latex allergy in the united states

Tartrazine Skin irritation, hives, rash Synthetic yellow food coloring, also used for bright green coloring
Tree nut[25] Anaphylaxis, swelling, rash, hives, sometimes vomiting Hazard extends to exposure to cooking vapors, or handling. Distinct from peanut allergy, as peanuts are legumes.
Wheat[26] Eczema (atopic dermatitis), Hives, asthma, hay fever, angioedema, abdominal cramps, Celiac disease, diarrhea, temporary (3 or 4 day) mental incompetence, anemia, nausea, and vomiting[27] Not to be confused with Celiac Disease or NCGS (Non Celiac Gluten Sensitivity).

While wheat allergies are «true» allergies, Celiac Disease is an autoimmune disease.[28]

Environmental

Main article: Allergy § Other environmental factors

Name Possible reaction(s) Remarks
Balsam of Peru Redness, swelling, itching, allergiccontact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngealmucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantardermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters.

A number of national and international surveys own identified Balsam of Peru as being in the «top five» allergens most commonly causing patch test reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics.[41][42]
Pollen Sneezing, body ache, headache (in rare cases, extremely painful cluster headaches may happen due to allergic sinusitis; these may leave a temporary time period of 1 and a half to 2 days with eye sensitivity), allergic conjunctivitis (includes watery, red, swelled, itchy, and irritating eyes), runny nose, irritation of the nose, nasal congestion, minor fatigue, chest pain and discomfort, coughing, sore throat, facial discomfort (feeling of stuffed face) due to allergic sinusitis, possible asthma attack, wheezing
Cat Sneezing, itchy swollen eyes, rash, congestion, wheezing
Dog Rash, sneezing, congestion, wheezing, vomiting from coughing, Sometimes itchy welts.

Caused by dander, saliva or urine of dogs, or by dust, pollen or other allergens that own been carried on the fur.[43] Allergy to dogs is present in as much as 10 percent of the population.[43]
Insect sting Hives, wheezing, possible anaphylaxis Possible from bee or wasp stings, or bites from mosquitoes or flies love Leptoconops torrens.
Mold Sneeze, coughing, itchy, discharge from the nose, respiratory irritation, congested feeling,[44] joint aches, headaches, fatigue[45]
Perfume Itchy eyes, runny nose, sore throat, headaches, muscle/joint pain, asthma attack, wheezing, chest pain, blisters
Cosmetics Contact dermatitis,[46] irritant contact dermatitis, inflammation, redness,[47] conjunctivitis[48] ,sneezing
Semen Burning, pain and swelling, possibly for days, swelling or blisters, vaginal redness,[49] fever, runny nose, extreme fatigue[50][51][52][53][54] In a case study in Switzerland, a lady who was allergic to Balsam of Peru was allergic to her boyfriend’s semen following intercourse, after he drank large amounts of Coca-Cola.[55]
Latex Contact dermatitis, hypersensitivity
Water (see note) Epidermal itching Strictly aquagenic pruritus or aquagenic urticaria, but freezing urticaria may also be described as a «water allergy,» in which water may cause hives and anaphylaxis
House dust mite[56] Asthma Home allergen reduction may be recommended
Nickel (nickel sulfate hexahydrate) Allergic contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema[57][58]
Gold (gold sodium thiosulfate) Allergic contact dermatitis
Chromium Allergic contact dermatitis
Cobalt chloride Allergic contact dermatitis
Formaldehyde Allergic contact dermatitis
Photographic developers Allergic contact dermatitis
Fungicide Allergic contact dermatitis, fever, anaphylaxis

medical

Main article: Drug allergy

Name Possible reaction(s) Remarks
Balsam of Peru Redness, swelling, itching, allergiccontact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngealmucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantardermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters.

Present in numerous drugs, such as hemorrhoid suppositories and ointment (e.g. Anusol), cough medicine/suppressant and lozenges, diaper rash ointments, oral and lip ointments, tincture of benzoin, wound spray (it has been reported to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as the common ulcer-causing bacteria H. pylori in test-tube studies), calamine lotion, surgical dressings, dental cement, eugenol used by dentists, some periodontal impression materials, and in the treatment of dry socket in dentistry.
Tetracycline Many, including: severe headache, dizziness, blurred vision, fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms, severe blistering, peeling, dark colored urine[29][30][31]
Dilantin Many, including: swollen glands, simple bruising or bleeding, fever, sore throat[32][33][34]
Tegretol (carbamazepine) Shortness of breath, wheezing or difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, lips, tongue etc., hives[35][36][37]
Penicillin Diarrhea, hypersensitivity, nausea, rash, neurotoxicity, urticaria
Cephalosporins Maculopapular or morbilliform skin eruption, and less commonly urticaria, eosinophilia, serum-sickness–like reactions, and anaphylaxis.[38]
Sulfonamides Urinary tract disorders, haemopoietic disorders, porphyria and hypersensitivity reactions, Stevens–Johnson syndrometoxic epidermal necrolysis
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium, etc.) Many, including: swollen eyes, lips, or tongue, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate[39]
Intravenous contrast dye Anaphylactoid reactions and contrast-induced nephropathy
Local anesthetics Urticaria and rash, dyspnea, wheezing, flushing, cyanosis, tachycardia[40]

Contact

Many substances can cause an allergic reaction when in contact with the human integumentary system.


0-11 months

Clinical Questions

  • Are health care providers becoming complacent about latex risks in hospital and office settings?
  • How do we recognize infants who are most at risk or those that may turn positive?

Guidelines

Guidelines

  • Inform parents and caregivers about latex allergy and ways to provide safe baby care while avoiding exposure to latex products.3-4,11-19
  • Avoid using health care products that contain latex when caring for infants with Spina Bifida3-4,11-19
  • Inform staff and families of any latex-containing products such as bottle nipples, pacifiers, teething rings, toys, and other items such as urinary catheters.3-4,11-19 (Appendix 1)


Further reading

  • 1.

    Scarbec K.

    Latex: Is it safe? Acad Gen Dentistry, 1993;21:2–6. Scholar

  • 2.

    Laxenaire MC, Cottineau C, Neidhardt M, et al. Agents causing anaphylactic shocks during anesthesia. Third French multicentric survey (1992–1994). Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 1996;15:1211–1218.PubMed Scholar

  • 3.

    Alenius H, Turjanmaa K, Palosuo T.

    What is the prevalence of latex allergy in the united states

    Natural rubber latex allergy. Occup Environ Med. 2002;59:419–24.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 4.

    Yeang HY, Arif SAM, Yusof F, Sunderasan E.

    What is the prevalence of latex allergy in the united states

    Allergenic proteins of natural rubber latex. Methods. 2002;27:32–45.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 5.

    Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Turjanmaa K, Palosuo T, Reunala T. Characterization of latex antigens and allergens in surgical gloves and natural rubber by immunoelectrophoretic methods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;90:230–235.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 6.

    von Krogh G, Maibach HI. The contact urticaria syndrome-an update review [Abstract]. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1981;5:328–342. Scholar

  • 7.

    von Hintzenstern J, Heese A, Koch HU, Peters KP, Hornstein OP.

    Frequency, spectrum and occupational relevance of type IV allergies to rubber chemicals. Contact Dermatitis. 1991;24:244–252.CrossRef Scholar

  • 8.

    Sommer S, Wilkinson SM, Beck MH, et al. Type IV hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber latex: Results of a multicentric study. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146:114–117.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 9.

    Liss GM, Sussman GL. Latex sensitization: Occupational versus general population prevalence rates.

    Am J Int Med. 1999;35:196–200.CrossRef Scholar

  • 10.

    Turjanmaa K, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Reunala T, Alenius H, Palosuo T. Natural rubber latex allergy: The European experience. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2000;15:71–88. Scholar

  • 11.

    Turjanmaa K, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S. Latex allergy: Prevalence, risk factors, and cross-reactivity. Methods. 2002;27: 10–14.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 12.

    Lagier F, Vervloet D, Lhermet I, Poyen D, Charpin D.

    Prevalence of latex allergy in operating room nurses. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1992;90:319–322.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 13.

    Yassin MS, Lierl MB, Fischer TJ, O’Brien K, Cross J, Steinmetz C. Latex allergy in hospital employees. Ann Allergy. 1994;72:245–249.PubMed Scholar

  • 14.

    Iacobelli AM, McCullough JA, Ownby DR. The prevalence of latex allergy in high risk medical personnel [Abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1993;91:216.

    Scholar

  • 15.

    Brehler R, Kolling R, Webb M, Wastell C. Glove powder—A risk factor for the development of latex allergy. Eur J Surg. 1997;579(Suppl):23–25. Scholar

  • 16.

    Mace SR, Sussman GL, Liss G, et al. Latex allergy in operating room nurses. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1998;80:252–256.PubMed Scholar

  • 17.

    Liss GM, Sussman GL, Deal K, et al. Latex allergy: Epidemiological study of 1351 hospital workers. Occup Environ Med. 1997;54:335–342.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 18.

    Turjanmaa K, Cacioli P, Thompson R, Simlote P, Lopez M.

    Frequency of natural rubber latex allergy among US operating room nurses using skin prick testing [Abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995;95:214–214. Scholar

  • 19.

    Tarlo SM, Sussman GL, Holness DL. Latex sensitivity in dental students and staff: A cross-sectional study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;99:396–401.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 20.

    Kibby T, Akl M. Prevalence of latex sensitization in a hospital employee population. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1997; 78:41–44.PubMed Scholar

  • 21.

    Hayes BB, Afshari A, Millecchia L, Willard PA, Povoski SP, Meade BJ. Evaluation of percutaneous penetration of natural rubber latex proteins.

    Toxicol Sci. 2000;56:262–270.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 22.

    Michael T, Niggemann B, Moers A, Seidel U, Wahn U, Scheffner D. Risk factors for latex allergy in patients with spina bifida. Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26:934–939.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 23.

    Drexler S, Strehl E, Heese A, Wenzel D, Stehr K. Prevalence and risk factors of type I latex allergy in children with spina bifida. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 1995;143:998–1002. Scholar

  • 24.

    Kelly KJ, Pearson ML, Kurup VP, et al.

    A cluster of anaphylactic reactions in children with spina bifida during general anesthesia: Epidemiologic features, risk factors, and latex hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1994;94:53–61.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 25.

    Konz KR, Chia JK, Kurup VP, Resnick A, Kelly KJ, Fink JN. Comparison of latex hypersensitivity among patients with neurologic defects. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995;95:950–954.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 26.

    Pittman T, Kiburz J, Gabriel K, Steinhardt G, Williams D, Slater J.

    Latex allergy in children with spina bifida. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1995;22:96–100.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 27.

    Gold M, Swartz JS, Braude BM, Dolovich J, Shandling B, Gilmour RF. Intraoperative anaphylaxis: An association with latex sensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1991;87:662–666.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 28.

    Warshaw EM. Latex allergy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;39: 1–24.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 29.

    Theissen U, Theissen JL, Mertes N, Brehler R.

    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to latex in childhood. Allergy. 1997;52:665–669.PubMed Scholar

  • 30.

    Niggemann B, Kulig M, Bergmann R, Wahn U. Development of latex allergy in children up to 5 years of age—a retrospective analysis of risk factors. Pediatr, Allergy Immunol. 1998;9:36–39. Scholar

  • 31.

    Porri F, Pradal M, Lemiere C, et al. Association between latex sensitization and repeated latex exposure in children. Anesthesiology. 1997;86:599–602.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 32.

    Golden DBK, Hamilton R, Birenberg A, Krehtool B, Haglauer C, Adkinson NF.

    Latex sensitization in surgical patients [Abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995;95:157–157. Scholar

  • 33.

    Van-der Walle WH, Brunsveld VM. Latex allergy among hairdressers. Contact Dermatitis. 1995;32:177–178.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 34.

    Sussman GL, Lem D, Liss G, Beezhold D. Latex allergy in housekeeping personnel. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1995; 74:415–418.PubMed Scholar

  • 35.

    Carrillo T, Blanco C, Quiralte J, Castillo R, Cuevas M, deRodriguez CF. Prevalence of latex allergy among greenhouse workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995;96:699–701.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 36.

    Orfan NA, Reed R, Dykewicz MS, Ganz M, Kolski GB.

    Occupational asthma in a latex doll manufacturing plant. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1994;94:826–830.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 37.

    Tarlo SM, Wong L, Roos J, Booth N. Occupational asthma caused by latex in a surgical glove manufacturing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1990;85:626–631.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 38.

    Zuskin E, Mustajbegovic J, Kanceljak B, Schachter EN, Macan J, Budak A. Respiratory function and immunological status in workers employed in a latex glove manufacturing plant.

    Am J Industr. Med. 1998;33:175–181.CrossRef Scholar

  • 39.

    Pisati G, Baruffini A, Bernabeo F, Falagiani P. Environmental and clinical study of latex allergy in a textile factory. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998;101:327–329.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 40.

    Kütting B, Weber B, Brehler R. Evaluation of a dipstick test (allergodip-latex) for in vitro diagnosis of natural rubber allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2001;126:226–230.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 41.

    Hamilton RG. Diagnosis of natural rubber allergy. Methods.

    2002;27:22–31.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 42.

    Kurup VP, Yeang HY, Sussman GL, et al. Detection of immunoglobulin antibodies in the sera of patients using purified latex allergens. Clin Exp Allergy. 2000;30:359–369.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 43.

    Lundberg M, Chen Z, Rihs HP, Wrangsjö K. Recombinant spiked allergen extract. Allergy Net. 2001;56:794–795.CrossRef Scholar

  • 44.

    Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Turjanmaa K. Laboratory evaluation of latex CAP-FEIA [Abstract] Allergy. 1995;26:39–39.

    Scholar

  • 45.

    Brehler R, Abrams E, Sedlmayr S. Cross-reactivity between Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) and natural rubber latex. Allergy. 1998;53:402–406.PubMed Scholar

  • 46.

    Mari A, Iacovacci P, Afferni C, et al. Specific IgE to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants strongly affect the in vitro diagnosis of allergic diseases J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;103:1005–1011.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 47.

    Van Ree R, Aalbertse RC.

    Specific IgE without clinical allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;103:1000–1001.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 48.

    Brehler R, Kütting B, Rütter A, Fiebig H. IgE antibodies to carbohydrate mimic sensitization to NRL [Abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;107(Part 2):390. Scholar

  • 49.

    Turjanmaa K, Palosuo T, Alenius H, et al. Latex allergy diagnosis: In vivo and in vitro standardization of a natural rubber latex extract.

    Allergy. 1997;52:41–50.PubMed Scholar

  • 50.

    Yunginger JW. Diagnostic skin testing for natural rubber latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998;102:351–352.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 51.

    Hamilton RG, Adkinson NF. Natural rubber latex skin testing reagents: Safety and diagnostic accuracy of nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and latex rubber glove extracts. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996;98:872–883.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 52.

    Yip L, Hickey V, Wagner B, et al. Skin prick test reactivity to recombinant latex allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2000;121:292–299.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 53.

    Brehler R, Sedlmayr S.

    Contact dermatitis due to rubber chemicals? Contact Dermatitis. 1997;37:125–127.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 54.

    Hamilton RG, Adkinson NF. Validation of the latex glove provocation procedure in latex-allergic subjects. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1997;79:266–272.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 55.

    Knudsen BB, Hametner C, Seycek O, et al. Allergological relevant rubber accelerators in single-use medical gloves. Contact Dermatitis. 2000;43:9–15.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 56.

    Blanco C, Carillo T, Quiralte R, et al. Latex allergy: Clinical features and cross-reactivity with fruits.

    Ann Allergy. 1994; 73:309–314.PubMed Scholar

  • 57.

    Brehler R, Theissen U, Mohr C, Luger T. “Latex-fruit syndrome”: Frequency of cross-reacting IgE antibodies. Allergy. 1997;52:404–410.PubMed Scholar

  • 58.

    Beezhold DH, Sussman Gl, Liss GM, Chang NS. Latex allergy can induce clinical reactions to specific foods. Clin Exp Allergy. 1996;26:416–422.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 59.

    Kostyal DA, Hickey VL, Noti JD, Sussman GL, Beezhold DH.

    What is the prevalence of latex allergy in the united states

    Cloning, and characterization of a latex allergen (Hev b 7): Homology to patatin, a plant PLA (2). Clin Exp Immunol. 1998;112:355–362.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 60.

    Sowka S, Wagner S, Krebitz M, et al. cDNA cloning of the 43-kDa latex allergen Hev b 7 with sequence similarity to patatins and its expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Eur J Biochem. 1998;255:213–219.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 61.

    Jaggi KJ, Hovanec BD, Unver E.

    Existence of profilin in latex allergen [Abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995;95:212. Scholar

  • 62.

    Vallier P, Balland S, Harf R, Valenta R, Deviller P. Identification of profilin as an IgE-binding component in latex from Hevea brasiliensis: Clinical implications. Clin Exp Allergy. 1995;25:332–339.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 63.

    Sowka S, Hsieh LS, Krebitz M, et al. Identification and cloning of Prs a 1, a 32-kDa endochitinase and major allergen of avocado, and its, expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    J Biol Chem. 1998;273:28091–28097.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 64.

    Diaz Perales A, Collada C, Blanco C, et al. Class I chitinases with hevein-like domain, but not class II enzymes, are relevant chestnut and avocado allergens.

    What is the prevalence of latex allergy in the united states

    J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998;102:127–133.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 65.

    Alenius H, Kalkkinen N, Lukka M, et al. Prohevein from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is a major latex allergen. Clin Exp Allergy 1995;25:659–665.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 66.

    Scheiner O, Aberer W, Ebner C, et al. Cross-reacting allergens in tree pollen and pollen-related food allergy: Implications for diagnosis of specific IgE.

    Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1997;113:105–108.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 67.

    Chen ZP, Posch A, Cremer R, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Baur X. Identification of hevein (Hev b 6.02) in Hevea latex as a major cross-reacting allergen with avocado fruit in patients with latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998;102:476–481.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 68.

    Ortiz JCG, Moyano JC, Alvarez M, Bellido J. Latex allergy in fruit-allergic patients. Allergy 1998;53:532–536. Scholar

  • 69.

    Toci G, Shah S, Al-Faqih A, Beezhold D, McGeady SJ.

    Oral latex desensitization of health care workers [Abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998;101(Suppl):161. Scholar

  • 70.

    Pereira C, Rico P, Laurento M, Lombardero M, Pinto-Mendes J, Chieira C. Specific immunotherapy for occupational latex allergy. Allergy. 1999;54:291–293.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 71.

    Pereira C, Tavares B, Carrapatoso I, Rico P, Lombardero M, Chieira C. Latex immunotherapy: Efficacy and safety [Abstract].

    ACI International. 2000;(Suppl 2): 27. Scholar

  • 72.

    Dahl R, Larsen BB, Jensen EJ. Specific immunotherapy in a latex-allergic patient [Abstract]. ACI International. 2000; (Suppl 2):27–28. Scholar

  • 73.

    Leynadier F, Herman D, Vervloet, D, Andre C. Specific immunotherapy with a standardized latex extract versus placebo in allergic healthcare workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;106:585–590.PubMedCrossRef Scholar

  • 74.

    Koch HU.

    Regulatory aspects of latex allergy (CEN; extractable protein and allergen assays for latex gloves) Rev Fr Allergol Immunol. 1997;37:1201–1210. Scholar

  • 75.

    Palosuo T, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Alenius H, Reunala T, Yip E, Turjanmaa K. Measurement of natural rubber latex allergen levels in medical gloves by allergen-specific IgE-ELISA inhibition, RAST inhibition, and skin prick test. Allergy. 1998;53:59–67.PubMed

  • Workgroup Members: Richard Adams, MD (Chair); Kevin Kelly, MD; Sue Lockwood, Allergy and Asthma Network; Suzanne McKee, RN BSN; Candice Walker, PhD


    References

    • ^http://www.acaai.org/annual_meeting/Documents/ACAAIProgramGuide2012c.pdf
    • ^«Two Types of Cosmetic Allergy».

      Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2011-12-18.

    • ^CarbamazepineArchived 2011-11-04 at the Wayback Machine
    • ^Vien, Niels K.; Kaaber, Knud (1979). «Nickel cobalt and chromium sensitivity in patients with pompholyx (dyshidrotic eczema)». Contact Dermatitis. 5 (6): 371–4. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1979.tb04907.x. PMID 160856.
    • ^Thomas D. Horn (2003). Dermatology, Volume 2. Elsevier Health Sciences.

      p. 305. ISBN .

    • ^«Allergenic Foods and their Allergens, with links to Informall | FARRP | Nebraska». farrp.unl.edu. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
    • ^Grob, Martin; Reindl, Jürgen; Vieths, Stephan; Wüthrich, Brunello; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K. (2002-11-01). «Heterogeneity of banana allergy: characterization of allergens in banana-allergic patients». Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 89 (5): 513–516.

      doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)62090-X. ISSN 1081-1206.

    • ^Akagawa M, Handoyo T, Ishii T, Kumazawa S, Morita N, Suyama K (2007). «Proteomic analysis of wheat flour allergens». J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (17): 6863–70. doi:10.1021/jf070843a. PMID 17655322.
    • ^ ab«Allergenic Foods and their Allergens, with links to Informall | FARRP | Nebraska».
    • ^«Mold allergies, Mold allergy symptoms, What is mold allergy».

      Archived from the original on 2011-11-15. Retrieved 2011-12-18.

    • ^MMS: Error
    • ^Edward T. Bope; Rick D. Kellerman (2013). Conn’s Current Therapy 2014: Expert Consult. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN . Retrieved March 6, 2014.
    • ^Allergies From Antibiotics |LIVESTRONG.COM
    • ^«Everything You Should Know About Wheat Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment». Verywell. Retrieved 2017-01-05.
    • ^Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines (NSAIDs)
    • ^September 1998 CDA Journal – Toxicity and Allergy to Local AnesthesiaArchived 2011-12-04 at the Wayback Machine
    • ^National Institutes of Health, NIAID Allergy Statistics «Archived copy».

      Archived from the original on 2010-04-06. Retrieved 2011-12-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

    • ^Sicherer, Scott H.; Sampson, Hugh A. (2010-02-01). «Food allergy». Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 125 (2): S116–S125. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.08.028. ISSN 0091-6749. PMID 20042231.
    • ^Kaaber, K.; Veien, N. K.; Tjell, J.

      C. (1978). «Low nickel diet in the treatment of patients with chronic nickel dermatitis». British Journal of Dermatology. 98 (2): 197–201. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1978.tb01622.x. PMID 629873.

    • ^What are the most serious side effects of Dilantin?: Basic |Epilepsy.comArchived 2011-12-25 at the Wayback Machine
    • ^«Tomato — allergy information (InformAll: Communicating about Food Allergies — University of Manchester)». research.bmh.manchester.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-12-27.
    • ^«The Downside To Cosmetics – Cosmetic Allergy». Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
    • ^«JIACI · Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology».

      www.jiaci.org. Retrieved 2019-12-26.

    • ^Xavier Basagaña, Jordi Sunyer, Manolis Kogevinas, Jan-Paul Zock, Enric Duran-Tauleria, Deborah Jarvis, Peter Burney, Josep Maria Anto, and on behalf of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (2004). «Socioeconomic Status and Asthma Prevalence in Young Adults. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey». American Journal of Epidemiology. 160 (2): 178–188. doi:10.1093/aje/kwh186. PMID 15234940.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    • ^Gottfried Schmalz; Dorthe Arenholt Bindslev (2008). Biocompatibility of Dental Materials. Springer. ISBN . Retrieved March 5, 2014.
    • ^Mold allergies, allergic response, and allergy symptoms
    • ^ abDog Allergy at American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

      References up to 2011

    • ^Semen Allergy
    • ^Permaul, P.; Stutius, L. M.; Sheehan, W. J.; Rangsithienchai, P.; Walter, J. E.; Twarog, F. J.; Young, M. C.; Scott, J. E.; Schneider, L. C.; Phipatanakul, W. (2009). «Sesame Allergy: Role of Specific IgE and Skin Prick Testing in Predicting Food Challenge Results». Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. 30 (6): 643–648. doi:10.2500/aap.2009.30.3294. PMC 3131114. PMID 20031010.
    • ^Conjunctivitis – allergic and infectious – information, symptoms and treatment |Bupa UK
    • ^Tegretol (carbamazepine)
    • ^Anticonvulsant Drug Therapy: Dilantin: Neurology: UI Health Topics
    • ^Getting Pregnant and Fertility Problems: Sperm Allergy
    • ^«Allergy Society of South Africa – Wheat Allergy».

      Archived from the original on 2008-04-24. Retrieved 2008-10-20.

    • ^Semen Allergy Can Cause Flu-like Symptoms in Men |TopNews United States
    • ^Tong, Wai Sze; Yuen, Agatha WT; Wai, Christine YY; Leung, Nicki YH; Chu, Ka Hou; Leung, Patrick SC (2018-10-08). «Diagnosis of fish and shellfish allergies». Journal of Asthma and Allergy. 11: 247–260.

      What is the prevalence of latex allergy in the united states

      doi:10.2147/JAA.S142476. ISSN 1178-6965. PMC 6181092. PMID 30323632.

    • ^Harlan Walker (1990). Oxford Symposium on Food & Cookery, 1989: Staplefoods: Proceedings. Oxford Symposium. ISBN . Retrieved March 7, 2014.
    • ^Tetracycline – Drugs.com
    • ^Trileptal CMI approved 03.12.01
    • ^https://www.nbc29.com/story/40808946/uva-researchers-look-to-treat-allergic-reaction-to-red-meat-caused-by-ticks
    • ^https://www.cdc.gov/ticks/alpha-gal/index.html
    • ^Hemmer, W.; Klug, C.; Swoboda, I.

      (2016). «Update on the bird-egg syndrome and genuine poultry meat allergy». Allergo Journal International. 25 (3): 68–75. doi:10.1007/s40629-016-0108-2. PMC 4861744. PMID 27340614.

    • ^«Rare Meat Allergy Caused By Tick Bites May Be On The Rise». NPR.org. 27 November 2012.
    • ^UPDATE 1-Semen allergy suspected in rare post-orgasm illness – AlertNetArchived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine
    • Bolognia, Jean L.; et al. (2007). Dermatology. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN .
    • ^National Institutes of Health, NIAID Allergy Statistics 2005Archived 2010-04-06 at the Wayback Machine
    • ^«Lactose Intolerance or Milk Allergy: What’s the Difference?».

      EverydayHealth.com. Retrieved 2017-01-05.

    • ^‘Flu-like symptoms actually semen allergy’ – Times LIVE
    • ^«List of 14 Allergens | Food Information | Food Legislation | Legislation | The Food Safety Authority of Ireland». www.fsai.ie. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
    • ^Dilantin Information from Drugs.com
    • ^https://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(99)70136-3/fulltext
    • ^Allergies From Antibiotics |LIVESTRONG.COM
    • ^National Institutes of Health, NIAID Allergy Statistics 2005 http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/allergystat.htm
    • ^«Banana — allergy information (InformAll: Communicating about Food Allergies — University of Manchester)».

      research.bmh.manchester.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-12-27.

    • ^United States Public Law C. Food Allergen Labelling And Consumer Protection Act of 2004. Public Law 2004; 108-282:905-11.
    • ^«Lone Star Tick Bite Might Trigger Red Meat Allergy: Study». MedlinePlus. 9 November 2012. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012.
    • ^Semen Allergy Can Be Treated, Study Shows |Daily Health Report
    • ^ Zacharisen MC, Elms NP, Kurup VP.

      What is the prevalence of latex allergy in the united states

      Severe tomato allergy (Lycopersicon esculentum). Allergy Asthma Proc. 2002;23(2):149-52.

    • ^ abcdRuethers, Thimo; Taki, Aya C.; Johnston, Elecia B.; Nugraha, Roni; Le, Thu T. K.; Kalic, Tanja; McLean, Thomas R.; Kamath, Sandip D.; Lopata, Andreas L. (August 2018). «Seafood allergy: A comprehensive review of fish and shellfish allergens».

      Molecular Immunology. 100: 28–57. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2018.04.008. ISSN 1872-9142. PMID 29858102.

    • James, William D.; et al. (2006). Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN .
    1. Bolognia, Jean L.; et al. (2007). Dermatology. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN .
    2. James, William D.; et al. (2006). Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN .
    1. Bolognia, Jean L.; et al. (2007). Dermatology. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN .
    2. James, William D.; et al.

      (2006). Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN .


    Introduction

    (In these guidelines, “latex allergy” refers to type I hypersensitivity to Hevea brasiliensis, also known as natural rubber latex.)

    The history of latex allergy and its intersection with people with Spina Bifida dates back to the tardy 1980’s in the United States with the advent of Universal Precautions and no regulation of latex in gloves. As clinical reports of severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis and a 500-fold increase of life-threatening events in surgery for Spina Bifida, efforts were made to better understand the patterns of these episodes.

    In doing so, latex allergy was subsequently found to be the associated trigger in surgical procedures in patients with Spina Bifida and other conditions, particularly those with congenital neurogenic bladder conditions.1-2

    As a result, by the early 1990’s there were efforts to systematically avoid exposing infants and children with Spina Bifida to natural rubber products such as red rubber catheters and surgical gloves, or latex products used in various settings such as in neonatal intensive care units or newborn nurseries. As the importance of these measures became more widely accepted, there followed an extension to other areas of children’s hospitals, emergency rooms, and to numerous pediatric offices where the children were subsequently seen.

    Despite these efforts, exposure to latex remains relatively prevalent in the diverse environments frequented by people of every ages with Spina Bifida — hospitals, clinics, schools, homes, and community facilities. Exposure to latex could take put by direct contact or inhalation. Symptoms of latex allergy may initially be considered mild, such as skin irritations, rash, hives, flushed cheeks, itchy eyes, or sneezing. However, they can immediately progress or evolve related to subsequent exposures to more dramatic systemic responses such as generalized urticaria, wheezing, coughing, periorbital erythema and swelling, and even nausea and vomiting.3

    Until better scientific explanations are available to specifically drive prevention and intervention, people with Spina Bifida should continue to avoid skin contact with latex protein in the environment including foods with similar proteins, and avoid inhalation of powder that contains latex.4-7 Avoidance of latex should extend to latex-containing products used for personal care, medical care, dental care, and community participation.8-9

    Children, families and adults should be aware that caution should be taken regarding what has come to be labeled “latex fruit syndrome.” This remains incompletely understood and likely related to epigenetic factors.10 The protein allergen (example, Hev b 6  hevein) in some latex products makes up a considerable quantity of the entire protein.

    This has been shown to own significant cross-reactivity to certain proteins (chitinases) in banana, avocado and chestnuts, for example. While these fruits own been the most commonly described, there are at least 25 other fruits that may own some level of cross-reactivity with latex. For example, potatoes, eggplant, and kiwi own been described as potential concerns.

    At this time, it is helpful to understand that not every patients with true latex allergy own clinical reactions to fruit (~50%) and that few (~ 10%) of individuals with known allergy to a latex-cross-reacting fruit develop latex allergy symptoms.10 Parents and patients should be aware of potential “latex-fruit syndrome” reactions, but should also be aware of its relative risk.

    (Appendix 2)

    For additional details and resources on latex allergy, please review Appendix 1: Latex Allergy Fact Sheets and Other Materials and Appendix 2: Latex Allergy and Foods.


    RELATED VIDEO: