What is the medical definition of an allergy

What is the medical definition of an allergy

According to the United States Department of Labor, percent of healthcare workers are thought to own a latex allergy, as well as up to 68 percent of every spina bifida patients (due to regular surgical procedures). However, overall, less than 1 percent of the general population is allergic.

Allergic people's immune systems identify latex as a pathogen — a substance or organism that harms health. The immune system triggers cells in the body to produce antibodies that fight the latex component.

The next time the body comes into contact with latex, the antibodies detect it and signal the immune system to release chemicals, including histamine into the bloodstream.

The more a susceptible person is exposed to latex, the greater their immune reaction is likely to be — this is called sensitization.

During manufacturing, latex is often modified. Sometimes, the product is not thoroughly washed. As a result, more "free" latex is present on the surface. This "free" latex is responsible for a significant proportion of latex allergies.

Free latex easily sticks to the powder that is often used in surgical gloves.

During use, the gloves frequently "snap" when putting them on or taking them off. This snapping sends the powder into the air. Inhaled latex can be a serious allergic problem.


Faculty and Fellows


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Associate Professor of Medicine
Director, Middle for Excellence in Sickle Cell Disease

BU profile for Dr. Klings

Medical School: New York University School of Medicine
Internship: Boston City Hospital
Residency: Boston City Hospital
Fellowship: Boston University School of Medicine
Master’s/PhD programs: Masters of Science in Epidemiology

Links:

Dr.

What is the medical definition of an allergy

Klings see patients at Boston Medical Middle in the Shapiro Building, Suite 9B. Phone ()

Latex allergy describes a range of allergic reactions to substances in natural latex.

What is the medical definition of an allergy

It most commonly occurs due to contact with latex gloves and produces a range of symptoms, some of which can be serious.

Allergic reactions appear when a person's immune system reacts to nontoxic substances, in this case, latex.

This article covers the types of latex allergy, plus their symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

Special Interests:

Research:

  1. Understanding the epidemiology of  pulmonary complications of sickle cell disease
  2. Understanding the role of endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary vascular complications of sickle cell disease

Clinical:

  1. Mehari A and Klings ES. Chronic Pulmonary Complications of Sickle Cell Disease.

    Chest ;

  2. Pulmonary Complications of Sickle Cell Disease
  3. Dworkis DA, Klings ES, Shenouda S, Solovieff N, Melista E, Giovannucci C, Safaya S, Li G, Vita J, Steinberg MH, Baldwin CT.

    What is the medical definition of an allergy

    Endothelial response to TNF-α in an ARFGEF2 siRNA knockdown model:  Enhanced expression of   ICAM1,  VCAM1 and Transgelin. Open J Blood Dis ; 3:

  4. Pulmonary Hypertension
  5. Klings ES, Machado RF, Barst RJ, Morris CR, Mubarek K, Gordeuk VR, Kato GJ, Ataga KI, et al. An Official ATS Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of Sickle Cell Disease.

    Am J Resp Crit Care Med ;

  6. Critical Care Medicine
  7. Morris CR, Kim HY, Klings ES, Wood J, Porter JB, Trachtenberg F, Sweeters N, Olivieri NF, Kwiatkowski JL, Virzi L, Hassell K, Taher A, Neufeld EJ, Thompson AA, Larkin S, Suh JH, Vichinsky EP, Kuypers FA. Dysregulated arginine metabolism and cardiopulmonary dysfunction in patients with thalassemia. Br J Haematol ; (6)
  8. Whitesell PL, Owoyemi O, O’Neal P, Nouraie SM, Klings ES, RockA, MellmanTA, Berihun T,  Lavella J,  Taylor RE, Perrine SP.

    Sleep Disordered Breathing and Nocturnal Hypoxemia in Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease. Sleep Med ;

  9. Worsham CM, Martin ST, Nouraie SM, Cohen RT, Klings ES. Clinical and Laboratory Findings Associated with Sleep Disordered Breathing in Sickle Cell Disease. Am J Hematol ; doi: /ajh

Dr. Klings is an Associate Professor in the Department of Medicine.

What is the medical definition of an allergy

She attends in the Medical Intensive Care Unit and on the Pulmonary Consultation Service at Boston Medical Middle. Additionally, she has a clinic in the Pulmonary Hypertension Middle at Boston Medical Middle where she is involved in the diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension (Pulmonary Hypertension Center). She has special interest in the management of patients with chronic dyspnea and is the previous Medical Director of the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program.

Dr. Klings’ research since fellowship has focused on pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular complications of sickle cell disease. She is a Principal Investigator .in the Pulmonary Middle collaborating with investigators both at Boston University and throughout the United States.

She has clinically phenotyped over adults with sickle cell disease being treated at Boston Medical Middle and has utilized genomic and proteomic approaches to understand the pathogenesis for pulmonary vascular disease in this population. Her current research interests surround understanding the role of sleep-disordered breathing, chronic intermittent hypoxia and thrombosis as pulmonary vascular modulators in sickle cell disease. Known internationally as a leader in the care and treatment of patients with sickle cell disease and pulmonary hypertension, she headed a committee of 25 hematologists, pulmonologists and cardiologists to develop clinical guidelines sponsored by the American Thoracic Society for the care and treatment of these patients, which was published in   In , she co-chaired a workshop of 32 hematologists and pulmonologists to define the necessary clinical and research directions in sickle cell lung disease.

Selected Publications:

  • Latex can be found in numerous products, including balloons, medical devices, and bathmats.
  • Klings ES, Machado RF, Barst RJ, Morris CR, Mubarek K, Gordeuk VR, Kato GJ, Ataga KI, et al.

    An Official ATS Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of Sickle Cell Disease. Am J Resp Crit Care Med ;

  • Mehari A and Klings ES. Chronic Pulmonary Complications of Sickle Cell Disease. Chest ;
  • Dworkis DA, Klings ES, Shenouda S, Solovieff N, Melista E, Giovannucci C, Safaya S, Li G, Vita J, Steinberg MH, Baldwin CT. Endothelial response to TNF-α in an ARFGEF2 siRNA knockdown model:  Enhanced expression of   ICAM1,  VCAM1 and Transgelin. Open J Blood Dis ; 3:
  • Worsham CM, Martin ST, Nouraie SM, Cohen RT, Klings ES.

    Clinical and Laboratory Findings Associated with Sleep Disordered Breathing in Sickle Cell Disease. Am J Hematol ; doi: /ajh

  • Morris CR, Kim HY, Klings ES, Wood J, Porter JB, Trachtenberg F, Sweeters N, Olivieri NF, Kwiatkowski JL, Virzi L, Hassell K, Taher A, Neufeld EJ, Thompson AA, Larkin S, Suh JH, Vichinsky EP, Kuypers FA. Dysregulated arginine metabolism and cardiopulmonary dysfunction in patients with thalassemia. Br J Haematol ; (6)
  • Whitesell PL, Owoyemi O, O’Neal P, Nouraie SM, Klings ES, RockA, MellmanTA, Berihun T,  Lavella J,  Taylor RE, Perrine SP.

    Sleep Disordered Breathing and Nocturnal Hypoxemia in Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease. Sleep Med ;

  • Less than 1 percent of the general population is allergic to latex.
  • Latex is naturally produced by some plants.
  • The most common allergic reaction to latex is irritant contact dermatitis.

Fast facts on latex allergy

  1. Less than 1 percent of the general population is allergic to latex.
  2. Latex can be found in numerous products, including balloons, medical devices, and bathmats.
  3. Latex is naturally produced by some plants.
  4. The most common allergic reaction to latex is irritant contact dermatitis.

Fast facts on latex allergy

  1. Less than 1 percent of the general population is allergic to latex.
  2. Latex can be found in numerous products, including balloons, medical devices, and bathmats.
  3. Latex is naturally produced by some plants.
  4. The most common allergic reaction to latex is irritant contact dermatitis.


Education

  1. Medical School: Medical College of Georgia
  2. Fellowship: Vanderbilt University, Allergy/Immunology
  3. Residency: University of South Carolina, Palmetto Health Richland Children’s Hospital
  4. College: University of Kansas, B.A., Psychology


Types of latex allergy

We'll take a glance at the most common types of latex allergy below.

Allergic contact dermatitis

People with allergic contact dermatitis own a delayed skin reaction and a rash after contact with latex.

Signs and symptoms can affect every of the skin, they include:

  1. blistering
  2. scaling
  3. burning
  4. oozing

Allergic contact dermatitis is caused by the additives and chemicals used to process the rubber.

Today, there are tests that determine which chemical(s) the person is allergic to. As soon as they discover out, they can then avoid products that are processed with that chemical.

Latex hypersensitivity (type 1)

This is a serious and rare form of allergy causing a severe immediate reaction that can be life-threatening. Some people with type 1 latex hypersensitivity might also react in a similar way to bee stings.

Symptoms of latex hypersensitivity include:

  1. severe itching
  2. rhinitis — inflammation and irritation of the inside of the nose
  3. irritation
  4. conjunctivitis — inflammation of the covering of the white part of the eye
  5. cramps
  6. gastrointestinal problems

Symptoms may progress to:

People who are severely allergic to latex can react to clothes, shoes, and other things that contain natural rubber latex (elastic bands, rubber gloves, condoms, pacifiers, baby-bottle nipples, balloons, cars).

People with this type of allergy are extremely sensitive — a type 1 reaction can be triggered by exposure to airborne particles resulting from blowing up balloons.

This can happen even if the person is not present while the balloons are being inflated.

Irritant contact dermatitis

This is the most common type of reaction and also the mildest. It causes dry, itchy, irritated areas on the skin. Burning and scaling lesions of the skin are most often located on the patient's hands.

The skin becomes irritated after using gloves, frequent hand-washing, incomplete drying, and exposure to hand sanitizers, as well as the talcum powder substance that gloves are coated in.


What is latex?

Latex is a milky sap produced by some plants, including the tropical rubber tree.

It is a mixture of water, sugar, and proteins. Plants generally release latex after they are injured, in the same way that humans bleed following an injury. Plants use latex as a defense against insects.

Natural latex is generally white but can be scarlet, orange, and yellow. In numerous modern products, latex is synthesized, rather than being taken from natural sources.

Although rubber gloves are the main source of allergic reactions to latex, it is also used in a wide range of products, such as condoms and some medical devices.

Latex is used in over 40, products with numerous diverse uses.


Biography

Dr. Nicole Chadha received her B.A. in psychology from the University of Kansas, then returned to her southern roots in Georgia to pursue her career in medicine. She graduated with her medical degree from the Medical College of Georgia in Augusta, GA.

What is the medical definition of an allergy

She subsequently completed her pediatric residency at Palmetto Health Richland Children’s Hospital associated with the University of South Carolina and fellowship in Allergy/Immunology at Vanderbilt University.
Upon completion of her fellowship, Dr. Chadha remained on faculty at Vanderbilt as an Assistant Professor within the Division of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonary Medicine. Dr. Chadha is board certified in Pediatrics and Allergy and Immunology. She is a member of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, and the American College of Asthma Allergy and Immunology.

Dr.

Chadha chose to specialize in Allergy in specific because she enjoys studying the intricacies of the immune system and likes that the specialty allows her to treat both children and adults. The chronic nature of allergic disease affords her the chance to build lasting relationships with her patients.

What is the medical definition of an allergy

She finds grand reward in providing care and education that results in an improved quality of life for her patients. Dr. Chadha has numerous interests in a variety of allergic and immunologic conditions, including food allergy, asthma, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, primary immunodeficiency and eosinophilic esophagitis. She has contributed to research on eosinophilic esophagitis in children and has presented her work both locally and nationally.

Dr. Chadha lives in Charlotte with her husband, Ashley, a pediatric pulmonologist, 2 young sons, and 2 dogs. In her free time, she enjoys traveling, reading, cooking, interior design, volunteering and taking part in community events.

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Kirsten S.

Dr.

Hungness and the entire staff at Carolina Asthma and Allergy own been professional and caring. From my first appointment, I felt Dr. Hungness truly understood the extent of my allergies and how much they were affecting my quality of life. After doing a full allergy panel, she suggested we consider allergy shots. I can’t start to describe how much my life has improved since starting allergy shots! I noticed improvement in the first year. Now that I’m three years into getting shots, my symptoms own improved significantly. When I do feel allergy symptoms — which is rare — I take my antihistamine for a few days (I dont own to take it regularly anymore), and I am fine.

I can enjoy my life with my family and dont need to sit things out because I cant stop sneezing or can’t open my eyes.

My only remorse is that I didn’t start allergy shots a decade sooner. These shots own truly changed my life — and that’s no exaggeration. Our 8-year-old son has allergies as well, and after seeing my success on the shots, my husband and I decided to start him on shots, too. He’s been on them for 2 years now and he is a diverse kid.

Spring and autumn are no longer miserable for him.

Thank you, Dr.

What is the medical definition of an allergy

Hungness and Carolina Asthma & Allergy Center!


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Elizabeth S. Klings, M.D.



Board Certifications

  1. American Board of Allergy and Immunology
  2. American Board of Pediatrics


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