What is the level of measurement for allergies in statistics

The most common allergen is pollen, a powder released by trees, grasses and weeds that fertilize the seeds of neighboring plants. As plants rely on the wind to do the work for them, the pollination season sees billions of microscopic particles fill the air, and some of them finish up in people’s noses and mouths.

Spring bloomers include ash, birch, cedar, elm and maple trees, plus numerous species of grass. Weeds pollinate in the tardy summer and drop, with ragweed being the most volatile.

The pollen that sits on brightly colored flowers is rarely responsible for hay fever because it is heavier and falls to the ground rather than becoming airborne.

Bees and other insects carry flower pollen from one flower to the next without ever bothering human noses.

Mold allergies are diverse. Mold is a spore that grows on rotting logs, dead leaves and grasses. While dry-weather mold species exist, numerous types of mold thrive in moist, rainy conditions, and release their spores overnight. During both the spring and drop allergy seasons, pollen is released mainly in the morning hours and travels best on dry, warm and breezy days.


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First / final author
1. K Landgraf-Rauf, A Boeck, D Siemens, E Klucker, V Vogelsang, S Schmidt, S Kunze, C Weissenbacher, A Graessel, C Schmidt-Weber,  E von Mutius,  M Schedel, B Schaub.

IRF-1 SNPs influence the risk for childhood allergic asthma: a critical role for pro-inflammatory immune regulation. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2018 Feb;29(1):34-41.
2. M Twardziok,*,  P C Schröder,*, J. Krusche, VI Casaca, S Illi, A Böck, GJ Loss, M Kabesch, A. TonchevaC Roduit, M Depner,  J Genuneit, H Renz, M Roponen, J Weber, C Braun-Fahrländer, J Riedler, R Lauener, DA Vuitton, JC Dalphin, J Pekkanen, E von Mutius, B Schaub and the PASTURE study group. Asthmatic farm children show increased CD3+CD8low T-cells compared to non-asthmatic farm children. Clin Immunol. 2017 Sep 13. pii: S1521-6616(17)30301-7.
3. PC Schröder, S Illi, VI Casaca, A Lluis, A Böck, C Roduit, M.

Depner, R Frei, J Genuneit, P Pfefferle, M Roponen, J Weber, C Braun-Fahrländer, J Riedler, R Lauener,  DA Vuitton, JC Dalphin, J Pekkanen, E von Mutius, B Schaub, and the PASTURE study group. A switch in regulatory T cells through farm-exposure during immune maturation in childhood. Allergy. 2017 Apr;72(4):604-615.
4. Schröder PC, Casaca VI, Illi S, Schieck M, Michel S, Böck A, Roduit C, Frei R, Lluis A, Genuneit J, Pfefferle P, Roponen M, Weber J, Braun-Fahrländer C, Riedler J, Lauener R, Vuitton DA, Dalphin JC, Pekkanen J, von Mutius E, Kabesch M, Schaub B; PASTURE Study group.

IL-33 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of hay fever and reduced regulatory T cells in a birth cohort. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2016 Nov;27(7):687-695.
5. H. Harb*, D Raedler*, N Ballenberger, A Böck, H Renz, D Kesper, B. Schaub. Childhood allergic asthma is associated with increased IL13 and FOXP3 histone acetylation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015, Mar 11. pii: S0091-6749(15)00166-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.01.027.
6. D Raedler, N Ballenberger, E Klucker, R Otto, O Prazeres da Costa, O Holst, T Illig, T Buch, E von Mutius, B Schaub. Identification of novel immune phenotypes for allergic and non-allergic childhood asthma.

J Allergy Clin Immunol.

What is the level of measurement for allergies in statistics

2015 Jan;135(1):81-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.07.046.
7. Lluis A., Ballenberger N., Illi S., Schieck M., Kabesch M., Illig T. Schleich I, von Mutius E., Schaub B., Regulation of TH17 markers early in life through maternal farm exposure. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Mar;133(3):864-71.
8. Casaca VI, Illi S, Klucker E, Ballenberger N, Schedel M, von Mutius E, Kabesch M, Schaub B.  STAT6 polymorphisms are associated with neonatal regulatory T cells and cytokines and atopic diseases at 3 years.

2013 Oct;68(10):1249-58.
9. Lluis A, Depner M, Gaugler B, Saas P, Casaca VI, Raedler D, Michel S, Tost J, Liu J, Genuneit J, Pfefferle P, Roponen M, Weber J, Braun-Fahrländer C, Riedler J, Lauener R, Vuitton DA, Dalphin JC, Pekkanen J, von Mutius E, Schaub B; Protection Against Allergy: Study in Rural Environments Study Group. Increased regulatory T-cell numbers are associated with farm milk exposure and lower atopic sensitization and asthma in childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Feb;133(2):551-9.
10. Raedler D, Schaub B. Reply. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Jan;131(1):250.
11. Ballenberger, N, Lluis A, Illi S, Erika von Mutius, Bianca Schaub. Novel statistical approaches for non-normal censored immunological data: analysis of cytokine and gene expression data.

PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e46423.
12. Raedler D, Illi S, Pinto LA, von Mutius E, Illig T, Kabesch M, Schaub B. IL-10 polymorphisms influence neonatal cord blood immune responses, atopic dermatitis and wheeze with 3 years. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Mar;131(3):789-96.
13. Casaca V, Illi S, Suttner K, Schleich I, Ballenberger N, Klucker E, Turan E, von Mutius E, Kabesch M, Schaub B. TBX21 and HLX1 polymorphisms Influence Cytokine Secretion at Birth.Plos One 7(1): e31069. 2012.
14. Latzin, P, Frey U., J. Armann, Röösli M., B. Schaub. Effect of air pollution during pregnancy on neonatal immune responses. Plos One 2011 Aug, Vol 6, 8:e23130.

IF: 4,14.
15. Lluis A, Schedel M, Liu J, Illi S, Depner M, von Mutius E, Kabesch M, Schaub B. Asthma-associated polymorphisms in 17q21 influence cord blood ORMDL3 and GSDMA gene expression and IL-17 secretion. J Allergy Clin Immunol., 2011. Jun;127(6):1587-1594.e6.
16. Liu J, Raedler D, Illi S, Klucker E, Turan E, von Mutius E, Kabesch M, Schaub B. TLR2 polymorphisms influence neonatal regulatory T cells depending on maternal atopy. Allergy 2011; 66: 1020-1029.
17.

What is the level of measurement for allergies in statistics

Liu J, Lluis, A, Illi, S, Layland, L, Olek, S, von Mutius E, Schaub B. T regulatory cells in cord blood — FOXP3 demethylation as dependable quantitative marker. PLoS One. 2010 Oct 12;5(10):e13267.
18. Schaub, B, Liu J, Höppler, S, Schleich I, Illi S, Huehn, J, Olek S, Wieczorek, G, von Mutius, E. Maternal farm exposure modulates neonatal immune mechanisms through T regulatory cells.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Apr;123(4):774-82.e5.
19. Schaub, B, Illi S, von Mutius E. Reply: Impairment of regulatory T cells in cord blood of atopic mothers.J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Oct;122(4):841. 841 2008.
20. Schaub B, Liu, J, Schleich, I, Höppler, S, Sattler, C, von Mutius, E, Impairment of T helper and T regulatory cell responses at birth. Allergy. 2008 Nov;63(11):1438-47.Schaub B, Höppler, S, Haug, S, Liu, J, Sattler, C, Lluis, A, Illi, S, von Mutius, E, Impairment of T regulatory cells in cord blood of atopic mothers.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 April, 121 (6): 1491-1499.
21. Schaub B, Campo M, He H, Perkins D, Gillman MW, Gold DR, Weiss S, Lieberman E, Finn PW. Neonatal immune responses to TLR2 stimulation: influence of maternal atopy on Foxp3 and IL-10 expression. Respir Res. 2006 Mar 21;7:40.
22. Schaub B, Tantisira KG, Gibbons F, Schroeter C, Litonjua A, Gillman MW, Gold DR, Weiss ST, Perkins DL, Finn PW. Fetal cord blood: Aspects of heightened immune responses. J Clin Immunol. 2005 Jul;25(4):329-337.

23. Schaub B, Westlake RM, He H, Arestides R, Hawgood S, Poulain FR, Perkins D, Finn PW. Surfactant protein D influences the development of the allergic immune response. Clin Exp Every. 2004 Dec;34(12):1819-26.
24. Schaub B, Bellou A, Gibbons FK, Velasco G, Campo M, He H, Liang Y, Gillman MW, Gold DR, Weiss ST, Perkins D, Finn PW. TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation differentially induce cytokine secretion in human neonatal, adult and murine mononuclear cells. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2004 Sep;24(9):543-52.
25. Schroeter C*, Schaub B*, Gold DR, Contreras P, Manrique O, Gillman MW, Weiss ST, Palmer L, Perkins D and Finn PW.

Nuklear factor kappa B activation in human cord blood mononuclear cells. Pediatric Research, 2004 Ped Research, 2004, Vol. 56, (2), 1-7. * Die beiden Autoren trugen in gleichen Teilen zu dieser Arbeit bei.

Coauthor:
1. Karvonen AM*, Tischer C*, Hyvärinen A, Illi S, Kirjavainen PV, Mustonen K,  Pfefferle PI, Renz H, Roponen M, Schaub B, von Mutius, E, Pekkanen J. Early age exposure to moisture damage and systemic inflammation at the age of 6 years. Indoor Air. 2018 May;28(3):450-458.
2. Delgado-Eckert E, Fuchs O, Kumar N, Pekkanen J, Dalphin JC, Riedler J, Lauener R, Kabesch M, Kupczyk M, Dahlen SE, Mutius EV, Frey U; PASTURE Study group with B.

Schaub and BIOAIR Study groups. Functional phenotypes sure by fluctuation-based clustering of lung function measurements in healthy and asthmatic cohort participants. Thorax. 2018 Feb;73(2):107-115.
3. Caroline Roduit, Remo Frei, Martin Depner, Anne M. Karvonen, Harald Renz, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Elisabeth Schmausser-Hechfellner, Juha Pekkanen, Josef Riedler,  Jean-Charles Dalphin, Erika von Mutius, Roger Lauener, PASTURE study group with B. Schaub. Phenotypes of atopic dermatitis depending on timing of onset and progression in childhood.

JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Jul 1;171(7):655-662.
4. Frei R, Ferstl R, Roduit C, Dipl-Ing MZ, Schiavi E, Barcik W, Rodriguez-Perez N, Wirz OF, Wawrzyniak M, Pugin B, Nehrbass D, Jutel M, Smolinska S, Konieczna P, Bieli C, Loeliger S, Waser M, Pershagen G, Riedler J, Depner M, Schaub B, Genuneit J, Renz H, Pekkanen J, Karvonen AM, Dalphin JC, van Hage M, Doekes G, Akdis M, Braun-Fahrländer C, Akdis CA, von Mutius E, O’Mahony L, Lauener RP; PARSIFAL; PASTURE/EFRAIM; study groups. Exposure to non-microbial N-Glycolylneuraminic acid protects farmers’ children against airway inflammation and colitis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jan;141(1):382-390.e7.
5. L Campos Carrascosa, M Klein, Y Kitagawa, C Lückel, F Marini, A König, A Guralnik, H Raifer, S Hagner-Benes, D  Rädler, A Böck, C Kang, M Lohoff, H Garn, B Schaub,
F Berberich-Siebelt, S Sakaguchi, T Bopp and M Huber. Reciprocal regulation of the Il9 locus by counteracting activities of transcription factors IRF1 and IRF4. Nat Commun. 2017 May 12;8:15366.

6. Chauveau A, Dalphin ML, Mauny F, Kaulek V, Schmausser-Hechfellner E, Renz H, Riedler J, Pekkanen J, Karvonen AM, Lauener R, Roduit C, Vuitton DA, von Mutius E, Dalphin JC; PASTURE Study Group with B. Schaub. Skin prick tests and specific IgE in 10-year-old children: Agreement and association with allergic diseases. Allergy. 2017 Sep;72(9):1365-1373. doi: 10.1111/all.13148. Epub 2017 Apr 12. PMID: 28235151    
7. Hose AJ, Depner M, Illi S, Lau S, Keil T, Wahn U, Fuchs O, Pfefferle PI, Schmaußer-Hechfellner E, Genuneit J, Lauener R, Karvonen AM, Roduit C, Dalphin JC, Riedler J, Pekkanen J, von Mutius E, Ege MJ; MAS., Bauer CP, Forster J, Zepp F, Wahn V, Schuster A, Bergmann RL, Bergmann KE, Reich A, Grabenhenrich L; PASTURE study group members., Schaub B, Loss GJ, Renz H, Kabesch M, Roponen M, Hyvärinen A, Tiittanen P, Remes S, Braun-Fahrländer C, Frei R, Kaulek V, Dalphin ML, Doekes G, Blümer N, Frey U.

Latent class analysis reveals clinically relevant atopy phenotypes in two birth cohorts. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Jun;139(6):1935-1945.e12.
8. E. Bergroth, M Roponen, AM Karvonen, LKeski-Nisula, S Remes, J Riedler, C Roduit, JC Dalphin, V Kaulek, R Lauener, MR Hirvonen, J Genuneit, E Schmaußer-Hechfellner, H Renz, PI Pfefferle,  S Krauss-Etschmann, B Schaub,  E von Mutius, J Pekkanen and PASTURE study group. Enhanced T helper 1 and 2 cytokine responses at birth associate with lower risk of middle ear infections in infancy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2017 Feb;28(1):53-59.

9. Brick T., Schober Y., Bocking C., Pekkanen J., Genuneit J., Loss G., JC Dalphin, J Riedler, R Lauener, WA Nockher, H Renz, C Braun- Fahrländer, O Vaarala , E v Mutius, PI Pfefferle, Ege M. and PASTURE Study Group with Schaub B. Omega-3 fatty acids contribute to the asthma-protective effect of unprocessed cow’s milk. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Jan 11. pii: S0091-6749(15)01731-5.
10. Feng, M*, Yang Z *, Pan L, Lai X, Xian M, Huang X, Chen Y, Schröder PC, Roponen M, Schaub B, Wong GWK, Li J.

Associations of early life exposures and environmental factors with asthma among children in rural and urban areas of Guangdong, China. Feng M, Yang Z, Pan L, Lai X, Xian M, Huang X, Chen Y, Schröder PC, Roponen M, Schaub B, Wong GW, Li J. Chest. 2016 Jan 18. pii: S0012-3692(16)00450-5. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2015.12.028. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 26836923.
11. Loss GJ, Depner M, Hose AJ, Genuneit J, Karvonen AM, Hyvärinen A, Roduit C, Kabesch M, Lauener R, Pfefferle PI, Pekkanen J, Dalphin JC, Riedler J, Braun-Fahrländer C, von Mutius E, Ege MJ; PASTURE study group with B.

Schaub. The Early Development of Wheeze: Environmental Determinants and Genetic Susceptibility at 17q21. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov 17.
12. Weinmann T, Gerlich J, Heinrich S, Nowak D, Gerdes J, Schlichtiger J, von Mutius E, Schaub B, Vogelberg C, Roller D, Radon K. Establishing a birth cohort to investigate the course and aetiology of asthma and allergies across three generations – rationale, design, and methods of the ACROSSOLAR study. BMC Public Health. 2015 Dec 4;15(1):1210. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2555-y.
13. Mustonen K, Karvonen AM, Kirjavainen P, Roponen M, Schaub B , Hyvärinen A, Frey U, Renz H, Pfefferle PI, Genuneit J, Vaarala O, Pekkanen J.

Moisture damage in home associates with systemic inflammation in children. Indoor Air, 2015 Apr 27. doi: 10.1111/ina.12216.
14. H. Kääriö, J. K. Nieminen, A. M. Karvonen, K. Huttunen, P. C. Schröder, O. Vaarala, E. von Mutius, P. Pfefferle, B. Schaub, J. Pekkanen, M.-R. Hirvonen, M. Roponen. Associations between circulating dendritic cells, farm exposure and asthma at early age. Scand J Immunol. 2015 Sep 14. doi: 10.1111/sji.12389.
15. Martikainen MV, Kääriö H, Karvonen A, Schröder PC, Renz H, Kaulek V,  Dalphin JC, von Mutius E, Schaub B, Pekkanen J, Hirvonen MR, Roponen M. Farm exposures are associated with lower percentage of circulating myeloid dendritic cell subtype 2 at age 6.

Allergy. 2015 Jun 27. doi: 10.1111/all.12682.
16. H Kääriö, K Huttunen, AM. Karvonen, B Schaub, E von Mutius, J Pekkanen, MR Hirvonen, M Roponen. Early life exposure to a farm environment is associated with Th1-skewed and regulatory cytokine pattern at age 4.5 years. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 Sep 12. doi: 10.1111/cea.12636
17. Orivuori L, Mustonen K, de Goffau MC, Hakala S, Paasela M, Roduit C, Dalphin JC, Genuneit J, Lauener R, Riedler J, Weber J, von Mutius E, Pekkanen J, Harmsen HJ, Vaarala O; PASTURE Study Group with B. Schaub. High level of fecal calprotectin at age 2 months as a marker of intestinal inflammation predicts atopic dermatitis and asthma by age 6.

Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 Mar 10. doi: 10.1111/cea.12522.
18. L Lunding, S Webering, C Vock, A Schröder, D Raedler, B Schaub, H Fehrenbach, M Wegmann.

What is the level of measurement for allergies in statistics

IL-37 requires IL-18Rα and SIGIRR/IL-1R8 to decrease allergic airway inflammation in mice. Allergy. 2015 Apr;70(4):366-73. doi: 10.1111/all.12566. PMID: 25557042                                       
19. G Loss, M Depner, LH Ulfman, RJ Joost van Neerven, A Hose, J Genuneit, AM Karvonen, A Hyvärinen, V Kaulek, C Roduit, J Weber, R Lauener, PI Pfefferle, J Pekkanen, O Vaarala, JC Dalphin, J Riedler, C Braun-Fahrländer, E von Mutius, MJ Ege, and the PASTURE study group with B Schaub. Consumption of unprocessed cow’s milk protects from respiratory infections in the first year of life.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Jan;135(1):56-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.08.044. Epub 2014 Oct 19.
20. Orivuori L, Mustonen K, Roduit C, Braun-Fahrländer C, Dalphin JC, Genuneit J, Lauener R, Pfefferle P, Riedler J, Weber J, von Mutius E, Pekkanen J, Vaarala O; PASTURE Study Group with B Schaub. Immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G antibodies against β-lactoglobulin and gliadin at age 1 associate with immunoglobulin E sensitization at age 6. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014 Jun;25(4):329-37. doi: 10.1111/pai.12246.
21. Boos AC, Hagl B, Schlesinger A, Halm BE, Ballenberger N, Pinarci M, Heinz V, Kreilinger D, Spielberger BD, Schimke-Marques LF, Sawalle-Belohradsky J, Belohradsky BH, Przybilla B, Schaub B, Wollenberg A, Renner ED.

Atopic dermatitis, STAT3- and DOCK8-hyper-IgE syndromes differ in IgE-based sensitization pattern. Allergy. 2014 May 20. doi: 10.1111/all.12416. IF: 5.88.
22. Roduit C, Frei R, Depner M, Schaub B, Loss G, Genuneit J, Pfefferle P, Hyvärinen A, Karvonen AM, Riedler J, Dalphin JC, Pekkanen J, von Mutius E, Braun-Fahrländer C, Lauener R; the PASTURE study group. Increased food diversity in the first year of life is inversely associated with allergic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Feb 6. pii: S0091-6749(13)02964-3.
23. Depner M, Fuchs O, Genuneit J, Karvonen AM, Hyvärinen A, Kaulek V, Roduit C, Weber J, Schaub B, Lauener R, Kabesch M, Pfefferle PI, Frey U, Pekkanen J, Dalphin JC, Riedler J, Braun-Fahrländer C, von Mutius E, Ege MJ; PASTURE Study Group.

Clinical and epidemiologic phenotypes of childhood asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jan 15;189(2):129-38.
24. Orivuori L, Loss G, Roduit C, Dalphin JC, Depner M, Genuneit J, Lauener R, Pekkanen J, Pfefferle P, Riedler J, Roponen M, Weber J, von Mutius E, Braun-Fahrländer C, Vaarala O; PASTURE Study Group with B Schaub. Soluble immunoglobulin A in breast milk is inversely associated with atopic dermatitis at early age: the PASTURE cohort study.

Clin Exp Allergy. 2014 Jan;44(1):102-12.
25. Nwaru BI, Virtanen SM, Alfthan G, Karvonen AM, Genuneit J, Lauener RP, Dalphin JC, Hyvärinen A, Pfefferle P, Riedler J, Weber J, Roduit C, Kaulek V, Braun-Fahrländer C, von Mutius E, Pekkanen J; the PASTURE study group with B Schaub. Serum vitamin E concentrations at 1 year and risk of atopy, atopic dermatitis, wheezing, and asthma in childhood: the PASTURE study. Allergy. 2014 Jan;69(1):87-94.
26. Mustonen K, Orivuori L, Keski-Nisula L, Hyvärinen A, Pfefferle PI, Riedler J, Dalphin JC, Genuneit J, Lauener R, Roduit C, Braun-Fahrländer C, Weber J, Schaub B, von Mutius E, Pekkanen J, Vaarala O; and the PASTURE Study Group.

Inflammatory response and IgE sensitization at early age. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013 Jun;24(4):395-401.
27. Michel S, Busato F, Genuneit J, Pekkanen J, Dalphin JC, Riedler J, Mazaleyrat N, Weber J, Karvonen AM, Hirvonen MR, Braun-Fahrländer C, Lauener R, von Mutius E, Kabesch M, Tost J; PASTURE study group with Bianca Schaub. Farm exposure and time trends in early childhood may influence DNA methylation in genes related to asthma and allergy. Allergy. 2013 Mar;68(3):355-64.
28. Depner M, Ege M, Genuneit J, Pekkanen J, Roponen M, Hirvonen MR, Dalphone JC, Kaulek V, Krauss-Etschmann S, Riedler J, Braun-Fahrländner C, Roduit C, Lauener R, Pfefferle P, Weber J, von Mutius E and the PASTURE STUDY group: with Bianca Schaub. Atopic sensitization in the first year of life, J Allergy Clin Immunol.

2013 Mar;131(3):781-8.
29. Mustonen K, Keski-Nisula L, Vaarala O, Pfefferle PI, Renz H, Riedler J, Dalphin JC, Buechele G, Lauener R, Braun-Fahrländer C, von Mutius E, Pekkanen J; PASTURE Study Group with Schaub B. Few associations between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and environmental factors in 4.5-year-old children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012 Sep;23(6):522-8.
30. Karvonen AM, Hyvärinen A, Gehring U, Korppi M, Doekes G, Riedler J, Braun-Fahrländer C, Bitter S, Schmid S, Keski-Nisula L, Roponen M, Kaulek V, Dalphin JC, Pfefferle PI, Renz H, Büchele G, von Mutius E, Pekkanen J; PASTURE Study Group with Bianca Schaub.

Exposure to microbial agents in home dust and wheezing, atopic dermatitis and atopic sensitization in early childhood: a birth cohort study in rural areas.Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Aug;42(8):1246-56.
31. Roduit C, Frei R, Loss G, Büchele G, Weber J, Depner M, Loeliger S, Dalphin ML, Roponen M, Hyvärinen A, Riedler J, Dalphin JC, Pekkanen J, von Mutius E, Braun-Fahrländer C, Lauener R; Protection Against Allergy–Study in Rural Environments study group with Bianca Schaub.

Development of atopic dermatitis according to age of onset and association with early-life exposures. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jul;130(1):130-6.e5.
32. Kerzel S, Dehne J, Rogosch T, Schaub B, Maier RF, Zemlin M. T(H)17 cell frequency in peripheral blood from children with allergic asthma correlates with the level of asthma control. J Pediatr. 2012 Dec;161(6):1172-4.
33. Loss G, Bitter S., Wohlgesinger J., Frei R, Roduit C, Genuneit J, Pekkanen J, Roponen M, Hirvonen MR, Dalphin JC, Dalphin ML, Riedler J, von Mutius E, Weber J, Kabesch M, Michel S, Braun-Fahrländer C, Lauener R, and the PASTURE STUDY group: with Bianca Schaub, Prenatal and early life exposures alters expression of innate immunity genes: the PASTURE cohort study.

What is the level of measurement for allergies in statistics

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Aug;130(2):523-530.e9.
34. Matthias Griese, Jan Ripper, Anke Sibbersen, Pia Lohse, Peter Lohse, Candid Brasch, Andrea Schams, Asli Pamir, Bianca Schaub, Oliver Münsterer, Carola Schön, Thomas Nicolai, Karl Reiter, Aki Hektor. Long-term follow-up and treatment of congenital alveolar proteinosis due to a homozygous p.Ser25X mutation in exon 3 of the CSF2RA gene. BMC Pediatrics 2011, 11:72.
35. Caroline Roduit, Johanna Wohlgensinger, Remo Frei, Sondhja Bitter, Christian Bieli, Susanne Loeliger, Josef Rielder, Michael Kabesch, Bianca Schaub, Erika von Mutius, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Roger Lauener and the PASTURE study group.

co-authors: Finland: Juha Pekkanen, France: Jean-Charles Dalphin, Ulm: Gisela Buechele, Netherlands: Gert Doekes. Prenatal animal contact and gene expression of innate immunity receptors at birth are associated with atopic dermatitis, J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Jan;127(1):179-85, 185.e1.
36. Schimke, LF, Julie Sawalle, Joachim Roesler, Andreas Wollenberg, Anita Rack, Michael Borte, Nikolaus Rieber, Reinhold Cremer, Eberhart Maaß, Roland Dopfer, Janine Reichenbach, Volker Wahn, Manfred Hoenig, Annette F Jansson, Angela Roesen-Wolff, , Reinhard Seger, Bianca Schaub, Harry R Hill, Hans D Ochs, Troy R Torgerson, Bernd H Belohradsky, and Ellen D Renner.

Diagnostic approach to the hyper-IgE syndrome: Immunological and clinical key findings to differentiate HIES from atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010, Vol 126, Issue 3, Sept 2010, p 611-617.e1.
37. Pfefferle PI, Büchele G, Blümer N, Roponen M, Ege MJ, Genuneit J, Hyvärinen A, Lauener R, Pekkanen J, Riedler J, Dalphin JC, Brunekeef B, Braun-Fahrländer C, von Mutius E, Renz H and the PASTURE Study group. Collaborators: Weiss G, Iblagger E, Humer C, Russeger M, Hirvonen MR, Juntunen R, Tiihonen R, Tiittanen P, Kauppila T, Nevalainen A, Remes S, Viuttoan DA, Dalphin ML, Piarroux R, Reboux G, Roussel S, Sudre B, Schaub B, Schmid S, Korherr N, Quast D, Zimmermann M, Bitter S, Sennhauser FH, Loeliger S, Steinle J, Frei R.

Cord blood cytokines are modulated by maternal farming activities and consumption of farm products during pregnancy — The PASTURE-Study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Jan;125(1):108-15.e1-3.
38. Schedel M, Pinto LA, Schaub B, Rosenstiel P, Cherkasov P, Cameron L, Klopp N, Illig T, Vogelberg C, Weiland S., von Mutius E, Lohoff M, Kabesch M. IRF-1 gene variations influence IgE regulation and atopy. AJRCCM, 2008 Mar 15;177(6):613-21.
39. Ngoc PL, Rifas-Shiman S, Litonjua AA, Tzianabos AO, Schaub B, Ruiz-Pérez B, Tantisira KG, Finn PW, Gillman MW, Weiss ST, Gold DR.

Cord blood cytokines and acute lower respiratory illnesses in the first year of life. Pediatrics. 2007 Jan;119(1):e171-8.
40. Gold DR, Willwerth BM, Tantisira KG, Finn PW, Schaub B, Perkins DL, Tziabanos A, Ly NP, Schroeter, C, Gibbons FK, Campos H, Oken E, Gillman MW, Palmer LJ, Ryan LJ, Weiss ST. Associations of cord blood fatty acids with lymphocyte proliferation, IL-13 and interferon-g. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Apr; 117(4):931-8.
41. Willwerth BM, Schaub B, Tantisira KG, Gold DR, Palmer LJ, Litonjua AA, Perkins DL, Schroeter C, Gibbons FK, Gillman MW, Weiss ST, Finn PW. Prenatal, perinatal, and heritable influences on cord blood immune responses.

Ann Every Asthma Immunol., March 2006; 96:445-453.
42. Velasco G, Campo M, Manrique O, Abdelouahab B, He H, Arestides RS, Schaub B, Mueller TF, Perkins DL, Finn PW. Toll-like Receptor 2 or 4 Agonists Modulate Allergic Responses. Am J Resp Cell and Mol Biol, Vol. 32. Pp218-224, 2005.
43. Gibbons F, Israel E, Deykin A, Schaub B, Manrique OJ, He H, Perkins D, Finn PW. The Combined Effects of Zafirlukast, Prednisone, and Inhaled budesonide on IL-13 and IFN-g Secretion. J Clin Immunol. 2005 Sep;25(5):437-44.

Books, book chapters
1. Schaub B, Prescott S. The maturation of immune functions in pregnancy.

In Allergy,Immunology and tolerance in early childhood., Elsevier , United Kingdom ISBN/ISSN 978-0-12-420226-9. Chapter 21, 2016.
2. F. Nagel, E von Mutius, B. Schaub, Ambulanzmanual, Kapitel Asthma, Kapitel Neurodermitis, Kapitel Allergische Reaktionen. Springer Verlag. 3. Auflage, 2012.
3. B. Schaub, Pädiatrische Pneumologie: Kapitel Entwicklung der Abwehr, Springer Verlag, 2012
4. B. Schaub, Pädiatrische Pneumologie in der Pädiatrie — Diagnostik: Georg Thieme Verlag, 2011: Kapitel Lungenfunktionsdiagnostik: Bodyplethysmographie, Oszillometrische Atemwegswiderstandsmessung, Broncholysetestung und Provokationsverfahren, S.

151-184. Kapitel Diagnostische Schnittstellen zu anderen Fächern: Allergologie, S. 281-291.
5. PW Finn and B. Schaub. Encyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine. Chapter: Leukocytes, Mononuclear cells: T cells. April, 557-563, 2006.
6.  B. Schaub, R. Lauener, S. Prescott. Immunology and Defence mechanism of the developing lung. Eur Resp. Mon, 2006, 37, 1-19.

Reviews

1. Nowak E., Neuner A., Landgraf-Rauf K, Schaub B. Allergie und Asthma. Up2date, 2017.
2. Rieger MT, Schaub B. Asthma and wheeze during childhood. MMW Fortschr Med. 2016 Nov;158(20):72-78. Review.
3. K. Landgraf, B. Anselm, B. Schaub. The puzzle of immune phenotypes of childhood asthma.

Invited  review. Mol Cell Pediatr. 2016 Dec;3(1):27. doi: 10.1186/s40348-016-0057-3. Review.
4. B Schaub, D. Vercelli. Environmental protection from allergic diseases: From humans to mice and back. Curr Opin Immunol. 2015 Jul 23;36:88-93. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2015.07.004. Review. PMID:26210896.
5. PC Schröder, J Li, G WK Wong, and B Schaub, The rural-urban enigma of allergy: what can we study from studies around the world? Ped Allergy Imm. 2015, Jan 24. Doi  10.1111/pai.12341.
6. Klucker E, Rädler D, Schaub B. Prädiktive Marker einer Allergieentwicklung bei Geburt.

Allergologie, Jahrgang 37, Nr 3/ 2014, S99-107.
7. Rädler D, Schaub B. Immune mechanisms and childhood asthma. Invited review. Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 2014.
8. Rädler, D, Schaub B. Immunology and Defence mechanisms. ERS Handbook 2013.
9. Lluis A, Schaub B. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. Lessons from the farm-environment. 2012 Apr;12(2):158-63.
10. Nagel, F, Schaub B. Pädiatrische Praxis, 2011. Allergietestung in der pädiatrischen Praxis.
11. Schaub, B. Ärzte Woche, 28, Sept.

2010. Wie die Mutter so das Helpful ? Asthma bronchiale: Wie sich pränatale Einflüsse auf die Immunentwicklung im Kindesalter auswirken.
12. Schaub B., Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 2010. 158: 137-141, Asthma. Prenatal influences on immune development in childhood.
13. Schaub B., Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 2009.158: 71-86, Diagnostic tests for allergic diseases.
14. Schaub B, R. Lauener, E.

von Mutius: The numerous faces of the hygiene hypothesis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 May; 117(5):969-77; quiz 978.
15. Schaub, B, von Mutius, E. Obesity and asthma, what are the links? Current Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 5(2):185-193, April 2005. Auswahl als Medscape Artikel für CME Credits. May 25, 2005.
16. Schaub B, von Mutius E. The marketing of asthma and allergies. Lancet 2004 Oct 16; 364(9443):1389-90.
17. Bellou A*, Schaub B*, Ting L and Finn PW. Toll receptors modulate allergic responses: interaction with dendritic cells, T cells and mast cells. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol., 3: 487-494, 2003.

* Both authors contributed equally.

Influence of life-style factors on the development of the immune system and allergies in East and West Germany

Our website for the participants of the LISA study: www.lisastudie.de (in german).

Study objectives:

  1. To determine the influence of life-style factors, environmental exposures, and health-related behaviour on the development of the immune system and the incidence of allergic diseases in children.
  2. To determine the influence of traffic emissions and genetics

Study aims:

  1. Do exposures early in infancy differ between the study regions (e.g.

    infections, exposure to allergens, health-related behaviour of the parents)?

  2. Are regional differences (East/West Germany) in humoral and cellular immune parameters and in the prevalence of allergic diseases detectable in children?
  3. What is the quantitative influence of pollutants, and indoor and outdoor allergens on the development of allergies?
  4. What are the genetic influences on allergies and other illnesses of the immune system or respiratory tract? How do genetic factors and environmental factors (nutrition, pollutants) interact?

Study design:
Prospective cohort study in 4 regions of Germany (Munich, Leipzig, Wesel, Bad Honnef)
Recruitment period: 11/97-01/99, Follow-up since birth.

Study population:
3097 healthy, fullterm newborns were included in the study.

Study area:
1467 newborns from Munich, 976 from Leipzig, 348 from Wesel, and 306 from Bad Honnef.

Study methods:

  1. Exposure assessment: measurement of home dust mite, cat allergens, and of endotoxin; in a subpopulation indoor measurement of volatile organic compounds
  2. Questionnaires: monthly protocols during the first year of life, questionnaires every 6 months until age 2 years and thereafter at age 4, 6, 10 and 15 years.

  3. Blood analyses: cord blood IgE, at age 2 years specific IgE, IgG subclasses, antibodies directed against viruses, immunisation antibodies; in a subpopulation measurement of intracellular cytokines in T lymphocytes and surface antigen expression of lymphocytes (at birth and at age 2 years). Blood analysis at age of 6, 10 and 15 years.
  4. Medical examination at age 2, 6, 10 and 15 years.

Current status:
The 15-year follow-up was completed. The 20-year follow-up will start in 2017.

Investigators:
Marie Standl (Principal Investigator)

Collaboration:
Study middle Munich: Helmholtz Zentrum München — Institute of Epidemiology, PI: M.

Standl; The Department of Pediatrics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, PI: S. Koletzko, Technical University of Munich, Dept. of Pediatrics, PI: C.P. Bauer.
Study Middle Leipzig: UFZ-Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle; PI: G. Herberth,
Study Region Rhineland: Marien-Hospital Wesel, Department of Pediatrics; PI: A. von Berg. IUF Institute of Environmental Research. PI T. Schikowski. Medical Praxis for Children, Bad Honnef, PI: B. Schaaf.

Funding:
Partly by BMBF (Public Health Forschungsverbund Bayern), IUF, EU

Contact:
Helmholtz Zentrum München
Institute of Epidemiology
Dr.

Marie Standl
Ingolstädter Landstraße 1
D-85764 Neuherberg
Tel. +49-(0)89-3187-2952
Fax +49-(0)89-3187-3380
[email protected]@helmholtz-muenchen.de


Related publications:

Harris C, Buyken A, Koletzko S, von Berg A, Berdel D, Schikowski T, Koletzko B, Heinrich J, Standl M.
Dietary Fatty Acids and Changes in Blood Lipids during Adolescence: The Role of Substituting Nutrient Intakes.
Nutrients. 2017 Feb 11;9(2).

Abstract

Flexeder C, Thiering E, Koletzko S, Berdel D, Lehmann I, von Berg A, Hoffmann B, Bauer CP, Heinrich J, Schulz H.
Higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with improved FEV1 and FVC in adolescence.
Eur Respir J. 2017 Apr 26;49(4). pii: 1601804.
Abstract

Tischer C, Weikl F, Probst AJ, Standl M, Heinrich J, Pritsch K.
Urban Dust Microbiome: Impact on Later Atopy and Wheezing.
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Dec;124(12):1919-1923.
Abstract

Thiering E, Markevych I, Brüske I, Fuertes E, Kratzsch J, Sugiri D, Hoffmann B, von Berg A, Bauer CP, Koletzko S, Berdel D, Heinrich J.

Associations of Residential Long-Term Air Pollution Exposures and Satellite-Derived Greenness with Insulin Resistance in German Adolescents.
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Aug;124(8):1291-8.
Abstract

Markevych I, Smith MP, Jochner S, Standl M, Brüske I, von Berg A, Bauer CP, Fuks K, Koletzko S, Berdel D, Heinrich J, Schulz H.
Neighbourhood and physical activity in German adolescents: GINIplus and LISAplus.
Environ Res. 2016 May;147:284-93.
Abstract

Fuertes E, Standl M, Forns J, Berdel D, Garcia-Aymerich J, Markevych I, Schulte-Koerne G, Sugiri D, Schikowski T, Tiesler CM10, Heinrich J11.
Traffic-related air pollution and hyperactivity/inattention, dyslexia and dyscalculia in adolescents of the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts.
Environ Int.

2016 Dec;97:85-92.
Abstract

Tischer C, Casas L, Wouters IM, Doekes G, Garcia-Esteban R, Gehring U, Hyvärinen A, Oldenwening M, Kerkhof M, Sunyer J, Standl M, Thiering E, Torrent M10, Heinrich J8; HITEA study group.
Early exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma up to 10 years of age: results of the HITEA study.
Eur Respir J. 2015 Feb;45(2):328-37.
Abstract

Tiesler CM, Birk M, Thiering E, Kohlböck G, Koletzko S, Bauer CP, Berdel D, von Berg A, Babisch W, Heinrich J; GINIplus and LISAplus Study Groups.
Exposure to road traffic noise and children’s behavioural problems and sleep disturbance: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.
Environ Res.

2013 May;123:1-8.
Abstract

Tischer, C.G., Hohmann, C., Thiering, E., Herbarth, O., Müller, A., Henderson, J., Granell, R., Fantini, M.P., Luciano, L., Bergström, A., Kull, I., Link, E., von Berg, A., Kuehni, C.E., Strippoli, M.P., Gehring, U., Wijga, A., Eller, E., Bindslev-Jensen, C., Keil, T., Heinrich, J., ENRIECO consortium:
Meta-analysis of mould and dampness exposure on asthma and allergy in eight European birth cohorts: an ENRIECO initiative.
Allergy. 2011 Dec;66(12):1570-9
Abstract

Flexeder, C., Thiering, E., Brüske, I., Koletzko, S., Bauer, C.-P., Wichmann, H.-E., Mansmann, U., von Berg, A., Berdel, D., Krämer, U., Schaaf, B., Lehmann, I., Herbarth, O., Heinrich, J.:
Growth velocity during infancy and onset of asthma in school-aged children.
Allergy 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2011.02748.x
Abstract

Tiesler, C.M., Chen, C.M., Sausenthaler, S., Herbarth, O., Lehmann, I., Schaaf, B., Krämer, U., von Berg, A., von Kries, R., Wichmann, H.E., Heinrich, J.; The LISA Study Group:
Passive smoking and behavioural problems in children: Results from the LISAplus prospective birth cohort study.
Environ Res.

2011 Nov;111(8):1173-1179. Epub 2011 Jul 20
Abstract

Rzehak P, Thijs C, Standl M, Mommers M, Glaser C, Jansen E, Klopp N, Koppelman GH, Singmann P, Postma DS, Sausenthaler S, Dagnelie PC, van den Brandt PA, Koletzko B, Heinrich J, and the KOALA and the LISA study group:
Variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster, blood levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and eczema in children within the first 2 years of life.
PLoS One 2010 Oct 11;5(10):e13261.
Abstract

Chen CM, Weidinger S, Klopp N, Sausenthaler S, Bischof W, Herbarth O, Bauer M, Borte M, Schaaf B, Lehmann I, Behrendt H, Krämer U, Berdel D, von Berg A, Bauer CP, Koletzko S, Illig T, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J; LISA and GINI Study Group:
Common variants in FCER1A influence entire serum IgE levels from cord blood up to six years of life.
Allergy.

2009 Sep;64(9):1327-32. Epub 2009 Feb 24.
Abstract

Morgenstern V, Zutavern A, Cyrys J, Brockow I, Koletzko S, Kramer U, Behrendt H, Herbarth O, von Berg A, Bauer CP, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J, Gini And Lisa Study Group:
Atopic Diseases, Allergic Sensitisation and Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Children.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Jun 15;177(12):1331-7.
Abstract

Brockow I, Zutavern A, Franke K, Schaaf B., von Berg A, Krämer U, Lehmann I, Herbarth O, Borte M, Grübl A, Bauer CP, Wichmann HE and Heinrich J.:
Einfluss von Lebensbedingungen und Verhaltensweisen auf die Entwicklung von Immunsystem und Allergien im Ost-West-Vergleich (LISA).
Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 2008, Volume 156/3, 249-255.

Chen CH, Rzehak P, Zutavern A, Fahlbusch B, Bischof W, Herbarth O, Borte M, Lehmann I, Behrendt H, Krämer U, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J, and the LISA Study Group:
Longitudinal Study on Cat Allergen Exposure and the Development of Allergy in Young Children.
J Allergy Clin Immunol.

2007 May;119(5):1148-55.
Abstract

Slama R, Morgenstern V, Cyrys J, Zutavern A, Herbarth O, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J; LISA Study Group.
Traffic-related atmospheric pollutants levels during pregnancy and offspring’s term birth weight: a study relying on a land-use regression exposure model.
Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Sep;115(9):1283-92.
Abstract

Sausenthaler S, Koletzko S, Schaaf B, Lehmann I, Borte M, Herbarth O, von Berg A, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J for the LISA Study Group:
Maternal diet during pregnancy in relation to eczema and allergic sensitization in the offspring at 2 years of age.
Am J Clin Nutr.

2007 Feb;85(2):530-7.
Abstract

Zutavern A, Brockow I, Schaaf B, Bolte G, von Berg A, Diez U, Borte M, Herbarth O, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J, LISA Study Group:
Timing of Solid Food Introduction in Relation to Atopic Dermatitis and Atopic Sensitization: Results From a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.
Pediatrics 2006; 117/2:401-411.
Abstract

Gehring U, Bischof W, Borte M, Herbarth O, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J for the LISA study group:
Levels and predictors of endotoxin in mattress dust samples from East and West German homes.
Indoor Air 2004; 14: 284-292.
Abstract

Negele K, Heinrich J, Borte M, von Berg A, Schaaf B, Lehmann I, Wichmann H-E, Bolte G for the LISA Study Group:
Mode of delivery and the development of atopic disease during the first 2 years of life.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2004: 15:48-54.
Abstract

Heissenhuber A, Heinrich J, Fahlbusch B, Borte M, Wichmann HE, Bolte G for the LISA Study Group:
Health impacts of second-hand exposure to cat allergen Fel d 1 in infants.
Allergy 2003; 58:154-157.
Abstract

Lehmann I, Thoelke A, Weiss M, Schlink U, Schulz R, Diez U, Sierig G, Emmrich F, Jacob B, Belcredi P, Bolte G, Heinrich J, Herbarth O, Wichmann HE, Borte M:
T cell reactivity in neonates from an East and a West German city – results of the LISA study.
Allergy 2002; 57:129-136.
Abstract

Gehring U, Cyrys J, Sedlmeir G, Brunekreef B, Bellander T, Fischer P, Bauer CP, Reinhardt D, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J:
Traffic-related air pollution and respiratory health during the first 3 yrs of life.
Eur Respir J 2002; 19:690-698.
Abstract

Heinrich J, Bolte G, Hölscher B, Douwes J, Lehmann I, Fahlbusch B, Bischof W, Weiss M, Borte M, Wichmann HE, on behalf of the LISA study group:
Allergens and endotoxin on mothers’ mattresses and entire immunoglobulin E in cord blood of neonates.
Eur Respir J 2002; 20: 617-623.
Abstract

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Overview Projects

Keywords

allergic rhinitis — immunoglobulin E — vitamin D — adult

More from News

Peer-reviewed:

First / final author
1.

K Landgraf-Rauf, A Boeck, D Siemens, E Klucker, V Vogelsang, S Schmidt, S Kunze, C Weissenbacher, A Graessel, C Schmidt-Weber,  E von Mutius,  M Schedel, B Schaub. IRF-1 SNPs influence the risk for childhood allergic asthma: a critical role for pro-inflammatory immune regulation. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2018 Feb;29(1):34-41.
2. M Twardziok,*,  P C Schröder,*, J.

What is the level of measurement for allergies in statistics

Krusche, VI Casaca, S Illi, A Böck, GJ Loss, M Kabesch, A. TonchevaC Roduit, M Depner,  J Genuneit, H Renz, M Roponen, J Weber, C Braun-Fahrländer, J Riedler, R Lauener, DA Vuitton, JC Dalphin, J Pekkanen, E von Mutius, B Schaub and the PASTURE study group. Asthmatic farm children show increased CD3+CD8low T-cells compared to non-asthmatic farm children. Clin Immunol. 2017 Sep 13. pii: S1521-6616(17)30301-7.
3. PC Schröder, S Illi, VI Casaca, A Lluis, A Böck, C Roduit, M. Depner, R Frei, J Genuneit, P Pfefferle, M Roponen, J Weber, C Braun-Fahrländer, J Riedler, R Lauener,  DA Vuitton, JC Dalphin, J Pekkanen, E von Mutius, B Schaub, and the PASTURE study group.

A switch in regulatory T cells through farm-exposure during immune maturation in childhood. Allergy. 2017 Apr;72(4):604-615.
4. Schröder PC, Casaca VI, Illi S, Schieck M, Michel S, Böck A, Roduit C, Frei R, Lluis A, Genuneit J, Pfefferle P, Roponen M, Weber J, Braun-Fahrländer C, Riedler J, Lauener R, Vuitton DA, Dalphin JC, Pekkanen J, von Mutius E, Kabesch M, Schaub B; PASTURE Study group. IL-33 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of hay fever and reduced regulatory T cells in a birth cohort. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2016 Nov;27(7):687-695.
5. H. Harb*, D Raedler*, N Ballenberger, A Böck, H Renz, D Kesper, B. Schaub. Childhood allergic asthma is associated with increased IL13 and FOXP3 histone acetylation.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015, Mar 11. pii: S0091-6749(15)00166-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.01.027.
6. D Raedler, N Ballenberger, E Klucker, R Otto, O Prazeres da Costa, O Holst, T Illig, T Buch, E von Mutius, B Schaub. Identification of novel immune phenotypes for allergic and non-allergic childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Jan;135(1):81-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.07.046.
7. Lluis A., Ballenberger N., Illi S., Schieck M., Kabesch M., Illig T. Schleich I, von Mutius E., Schaub B., Regulation of TH17 markers early in life through maternal farm exposure. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Mar;133(3):864-71.
8.

Casaca VI, Illi S, Klucker E, Ballenberger N, Schedel M, von Mutius E, Kabesch M, Schaub B.  STAT6 polymorphisms are associated with neonatal regulatory T cells and cytokines and atopic diseases at 3 years. 2013 Oct;68(10):1249-58.
9. Lluis A, Depner M, Gaugler B, Saas P, Casaca VI, Raedler D, Michel S, Tost J, Liu J, Genuneit J, Pfefferle P, Roponen M, Weber J, Braun-Fahrländer C, Riedler J, Lauener R, Vuitton DA, Dalphin JC, Pekkanen J, von Mutius E, Schaub B; Protection Against Allergy: Study in Rural Environments Study Group. Increased regulatory T-cell numbers are associated with farm milk exposure and lower atopic sensitization and asthma in childhood.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Feb;133(2):551-9.
10. Raedler D, Schaub B. Reply. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Jan;131(1):250.
11. Ballenberger, N, Lluis A, Illi S, Erika von Mutius, Bianca Schaub. Novel statistical approaches for non-normal censored immunological data: analysis of cytokine and gene expression data. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e46423.
12. Raedler D, Illi S, Pinto LA, von Mutius E, Illig T, Kabesch M, Schaub B. IL-10 polymorphisms influence neonatal cord blood immune responses, atopic dermatitis and wheeze with 3 years.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Mar;131(3):789-96.
13. Casaca V, Illi S, Suttner K, Schleich I, Ballenberger N, Klucker E, Turan E, von Mutius E, Kabesch M, Schaub B. TBX21 and HLX1 polymorphisms Influence Cytokine Secretion at Birth.Plos One 7(1): e31069. 2012.
14. Latzin, P, Frey U., J. Armann, Röösli M., B. Schaub.

What is the level of measurement for allergies in statistics

Effect of air pollution during pregnancy on neonatal immune responses. Plos One 2011 Aug, Vol 6, 8:e23130. IF: 4,14.
15. Lluis A, Schedel M, Liu J, Illi S, Depner M, von Mutius E, Kabesch M, Schaub B. Asthma-associated polymorphisms in 17q21 influence cord blood ORMDL3 and GSDMA gene expression and IL-17 secretion. J Allergy Clin Immunol., 2011. Jun;127(6):1587-1594.e6.
16. Liu J, Raedler D, Illi S, Klucker E, Turan E, von Mutius E, Kabesch M, Schaub B. TLR2 polymorphisms influence neonatal regulatory T cells depending on maternal atopy.

Allergy 2011; 66: 1020-1029.
17.

What is the level of measurement for allergies in statistics

Liu J, Lluis, A, Illi, S, Layland, L, Olek, S, von Mutius E, Schaub B. T regulatory cells in cord blood — FOXP3 demethylation as dependable quantitative marker. PLoS One. 2010 Oct 12;5(10):e13267.
18. Schaub, B, Liu J, Höppler, S, Schleich I, Illi S, Huehn, J, Olek S, Wieczorek, G, von Mutius, E. Maternal farm exposure modulates neonatal immune mechanisms through T regulatory cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Apr;123(4):774-82.e5.
19. Schaub, B, Illi S, von Mutius E. Reply: Impairment of regulatory T cells in cord blood of atopic mothers.J Allergy Clin Immunol.

2008 Oct;122(4):841. 841 2008.
20. Schaub B, Liu, J, Schleich, I, Höppler, S, Sattler, C, von Mutius, E, Impairment of T helper and T regulatory cell responses at birth. Allergy. 2008 Nov;63(11):1438-47.Schaub B, Höppler, S, Haug, S, Liu, J, Sattler, C, Lluis, A, Illi, S, von Mutius, E, Impairment of T regulatory cells in cord blood of atopic mothers. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 April, 121 (6): 1491-1499.
21. Schaub B, Campo M, He H, Perkins D, Gillman MW, Gold DR, Weiss S, Lieberman E, Finn PW. Neonatal immune responses to TLR2 stimulation: influence of maternal atopy on Foxp3 and IL-10 expression. Respir Res. 2006 Mar 21;7:40.

22. Schaub B, Tantisira KG, Gibbons F, Schroeter C, Litonjua A, Gillman MW, Gold DR, Weiss ST, Perkins DL, Finn PW. Fetal cord blood: Aspects of heightened immune responses. J Clin Immunol. 2005 Jul;25(4):329-337.
23. Schaub B, Westlake RM, He H, Arestides R, Hawgood S, Poulain FR, Perkins D, Finn PW. Surfactant protein D influences the development of the allergic immune response. Clin Exp Every. 2004 Dec;34(12):1819-26.
24. Schaub B, Bellou A, Gibbons FK, Velasco G, Campo M, He H, Liang Y, Gillman MW, Gold DR, Weiss ST, Perkins D, Finn PW. TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation differentially induce cytokine secretion in human neonatal, adult and murine mononuclear cells.

J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2004 Sep;24(9):543-52.
25. Schroeter C*, Schaub B*, Gold DR, Contreras P, Manrique O, Gillman MW, Weiss ST, Palmer L, Perkins D and Finn PW. Nuklear factor kappa B activation in human cord blood mononuclear cells. Pediatric Research, 2004 Ped Research, 2004, Vol. 56, (2), 1-7. * Die beiden Autoren trugen in gleichen Teilen zu dieser Arbeit bei.

Coauthor:
1. Karvonen AM*, Tischer C*, Hyvärinen A, Illi S, Kirjavainen PV, Mustonen K,  Pfefferle PI, Renz H, Roponen M, Schaub B, von Mutius, E, Pekkanen J.

Early age exposure to moisture damage and systemic inflammation at the age of 6 years. Indoor Air. 2018 May;28(3):450-458.
2. Delgado-Eckert E, Fuchs O, Kumar N, Pekkanen J, Dalphin JC, Riedler J, Lauener R, Kabesch M, Kupczyk M, Dahlen SE, Mutius EV, Frey U; PASTURE Study group with B. Schaub and BIOAIR Study groups. Functional phenotypes sure by fluctuation-based clustering of lung function measurements in healthy and asthmatic cohort participants. Thorax. 2018 Feb;73(2):107-115.
3. Caroline Roduit, Remo Frei, Martin Depner, Anne M. Karvonen, Harald Renz, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Elisabeth Schmausser-Hechfellner, Juha Pekkanen, Josef Riedler,  Jean-Charles Dalphin, Erika von Mutius, Roger Lauener, PASTURE study group with B.

Schaub. Phenotypes of atopic dermatitis depending on timing of onset and progression in childhood. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Jul 1;171(7):655-662.
4. Frei R, Ferstl R, Roduit C, Dipl-Ing MZ, Schiavi E, Barcik W, Rodriguez-Perez N, Wirz OF, Wawrzyniak M, Pugin B, Nehrbass D, Jutel M, Smolinska S, Konieczna P, Bieli C, Loeliger S, Waser M, Pershagen G, Riedler J, Depner M, Schaub B, Genuneit J, Renz H, Pekkanen J, Karvonen AM, Dalphin JC, van Hage M, Doekes G, Akdis M, Braun-Fahrländer C, Akdis CA, von Mutius E, O’Mahony L, Lauener RP; PARSIFAL; PASTURE/EFRAIM; study groups. Exposure to non-microbial N-Glycolylneuraminic acid protects farmers’ children against airway inflammation and colitis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jan;141(1):382-390.e7.
5. L Campos Carrascosa, M Klein, Y Kitagawa, C Lückel, F Marini, A König, A Guralnik, H Raifer, S Hagner-Benes, D  Rädler, A Böck, C Kang, M Lohoff, H Garn, B Schaub,
F Berberich-Siebelt, S Sakaguchi, T Bopp and M Huber. Reciprocal regulation of the Il9 locus by counteracting activities of transcription factors IRF1 and IRF4. Nat Commun. 2017 May 12;8:15366.
6. Chauveau A, Dalphin ML, Mauny F, Kaulek V, Schmausser-Hechfellner E, Renz H, Riedler J, Pekkanen J, Karvonen AM, Lauener R, Roduit C, Vuitton DA, von Mutius E, Dalphin JC; PASTURE Study Group with B.

Schaub. Skin prick tests and specific IgE in 10-year-old children: Agreement and association with allergic diseases. Allergy. 2017 Sep;72(9):1365-1373. doi: 10.1111/all.13148. Epub 2017 Apr 12. PMID: 28235151    
7. Hose AJ, Depner M, Illi S, Lau S, Keil T, Wahn U, Fuchs O, Pfefferle PI, Schmaußer-Hechfellner E, Genuneit J, Lauener R, Karvonen AM, Roduit C, Dalphin JC, Riedler J, Pekkanen J, von Mutius E, Ege MJ; MAS., Bauer CP, Forster J, Zepp F, Wahn V, Schuster A, Bergmann RL, Bergmann KE, Reich A, Grabenhenrich L; PASTURE study group members., Schaub B, Loss GJ, Renz H, Kabesch M, Roponen M, Hyvärinen A, Tiittanen P, Remes S, Braun-Fahrländer C, Frei R, Kaulek V, Dalphin ML, Doekes G, Blümer N, Frey U.

Latent class analysis reveals clinically relevant atopy phenotypes in two birth cohorts. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Jun;139(6):1935-1945.e12.
8. E. Bergroth, M Roponen, AM Karvonen, LKeski-Nisula, S Remes, J Riedler, C Roduit, JC Dalphin, V Kaulek, R Lauener, MR Hirvonen, J Genuneit, E Schmaußer-Hechfellner, H Renz, PI Pfefferle,  S Krauss-Etschmann, B Schaub,  E von Mutius, J Pekkanen and PASTURE study group. Enhanced T helper 1 and 2 cytokine responses at birth associate with lower risk of middle ear infections in infancy.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2017 Feb;28(1):53-59.
9. Brick T., Schober Y., Bocking C., Pekkanen J., Genuneit J., Loss G., JC Dalphin, J Riedler, R Lauener, WA Nockher, H Renz, C Braun- Fahrländer, O Vaarala , E v Mutius, PI Pfefferle, Ege M. and PASTURE Study Group with Schaub B. Omega-3 fatty acids contribute to the asthma-protective effect of unprocessed cow’s milk. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Jan 11. pii: S0091-6749(15)01731-5.
10. Feng, M*, Yang Z *, Pan L, Lai X, Xian M, Huang X, Chen Y, Schröder PC, Roponen M, Schaub B, Wong GWK, Li J.

Associations of early life exposures and environmental factors with asthma among children in rural and urban areas of Guangdong, China. Feng M, Yang Z, Pan L, Lai X, Xian M, Huang X, Chen Y, Schröder PC, Roponen M, Schaub B, Wong GW, Li J. Chest. 2016 Jan 18. pii: S0012-3692(16)00450-5. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2015.12.028. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 26836923.
11. Loss GJ, Depner M, Hose AJ, Genuneit J, Karvonen AM, Hyvärinen A, Roduit C, Kabesch M, Lauener R, Pfefferle PI, Pekkanen J, Dalphin JC, Riedler J, Braun-Fahrländer C, von Mutius E, Ege MJ; PASTURE study group with B. Schaub. The Early Development of Wheeze: Environmental Determinants and Genetic Susceptibility at 17q21.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov 17.
12.

What is the level of measurement for allergies in statistics

Weinmann T, Gerlich J, Heinrich S, Nowak D, Gerdes J, Schlichtiger J, von Mutius E, Schaub B, Vogelberg C, Roller D, Radon K. Establishing a birth cohort to investigate the course and aetiology of asthma and allergies across three generations – rationale, design, and methods of the ACROSSOLAR study. BMC Public Health. 2015 Dec 4;15(1):1210. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2555-y.
13. Mustonen K, Karvonen AM, Kirjavainen P, Roponen M, Schaub B , Hyvärinen A, Frey U, Renz H, Pfefferle PI, Genuneit J, Vaarala O, Pekkanen J. Moisture damage in home associates with systemic inflammation in children. Indoor Air, 2015 Apr 27. doi: 10.1111/ina.12216.

14. H. Kääriö, J. K. Nieminen, A. M. Karvonen, K. Huttunen, P. C. Schröder, O. Vaarala, E. von Mutius, P. Pfefferle, B. Schaub, J. Pekkanen, M.-R. Hirvonen, M. Roponen. Associations between circulating dendritic cells, farm exposure and asthma at early age. Scand J Immunol. 2015 Sep 14. doi: 10.1111/sji.12389.
15. Martikainen MV, Kääriö H, Karvonen A, Schröder PC, Renz H, Kaulek V,  Dalphin JC, von Mutius E, Schaub B, Pekkanen J, Hirvonen MR, Roponen M. Farm exposures are associated with lower percentage of circulating myeloid dendritic cell subtype 2 at age 6. Allergy. 2015 Jun 27. doi: 10.1111/all.12682.
16.

H Kääriö, K Huttunen, AM. Karvonen, B Schaub, E von Mutius, J Pekkanen, MR Hirvonen, M Roponen. Early life exposure to a farm environment is associated with Th1-skewed and regulatory cytokine pattern at age 4.5 years. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 Sep 12. doi: 10.1111/cea.12636
17. Orivuori L, Mustonen K, de Goffau MC, Hakala S, Paasela M, Roduit C, Dalphin JC, Genuneit J, Lauener R, Riedler J, Weber J, von Mutius E, Pekkanen J, Harmsen HJ, Vaarala O; PASTURE Study Group with B.

Schaub. High level of fecal calprotectin at age 2 months as a marker of intestinal inflammation predicts atopic dermatitis and asthma by age 6. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 Mar 10. doi: 10.1111/cea.12522.
18. L Lunding, S Webering, C Vock, A Schröder, D Raedler, B Schaub, H Fehrenbach, M Wegmann. IL-37 requires IL-18Rα and SIGIRR/IL-1R8 to decrease allergic airway inflammation in mice. Allergy. 2015 Apr;70(4):366-73. doi: 10.1111/all.12566. PMID: 25557042                                       
19. G Loss, M Depner, LH Ulfman, RJ Joost van Neerven, A Hose, J Genuneit, AM Karvonen, A Hyvärinen, V Kaulek, C Roduit, J Weber, R Lauener, PI Pfefferle, J Pekkanen, O Vaarala, JC Dalphin, J Riedler, C Braun-Fahrländer, E von Mutius, MJ Ege, and the PASTURE study group with B Schaub.

Consumption of unprocessed cow’s milk protects from respiratory infections in the first year of life. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Jan;135(1):56-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.08.044. Epub 2014 Oct 19.
20. Orivuori L, Mustonen K, Roduit C, Braun-Fahrländer C, Dalphin JC, Genuneit J, Lauener R, Pfefferle P, Riedler J, Weber J, von Mutius E, Pekkanen J, Vaarala O; PASTURE Study Group with B Schaub. Immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G antibodies against β-lactoglobulin and gliadin at age 1 associate with immunoglobulin E sensitization at age 6.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014 Jun;25(4):329-37. doi: 10.1111/pai.12246.
21. Boos AC, Hagl B, Schlesinger A, Halm BE, Ballenberger N, Pinarci M, Heinz V, Kreilinger D, Spielberger BD, Schimke-Marques LF, Sawalle-Belohradsky J, Belohradsky BH, Przybilla B, Schaub B, Wollenberg A, Renner ED. Atopic dermatitis, STAT3- and DOCK8-hyper-IgE syndromes differ in IgE-based sensitization pattern. Allergy. 2014 May 20. doi: 10.1111/all.12416. IF: 5.88.
22. Roduit C, Frei R, Depner M, Schaub B, Loss G, Genuneit J, Pfefferle P, Hyvärinen A, Karvonen AM, Riedler J, Dalphin JC, Pekkanen J, von Mutius E, Braun-Fahrländer C, Lauener R; the PASTURE study group.

Increased food diversity in the first year of life is inversely associated with allergic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Feb 6. pii: S0091-6749(13)02964-3.
23. Depner M, Fuchs O, Genuneit J, Karvonen AM, Hyvärinen A, Kaulek V, Roduit C, Weber J, Schaub B, Lauener R, Kabesch M, Pfefferle PI, Frey U, Pekkanen J, Dalphin JC, Riedler J, Braun-Fahrländer C, von Mutius E, Ege MJ; PASTURE Study Group. Clinical and epidemiologic phenotypes of childhood asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jan 15;189(2):129-38.
24. Orivuori L, Loss G, Roduit C, Dalphin JC, Depner M, Genuneit J, Lauener R, Pekkanen J, Pfefferle P, Riedler J, Roponen M, Weber J, von Mutius E, Braun-Fahrländer C, Vaarala O; PASTURE Study Group with B Schaub.

Soluble immunoglobulin A in breast milk is inversely associated with atopic dermatitis at early age: the PASTURE cohort study. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014 Jan;44(1):102-12.
25. Nwaru BI, Virtanen SM, Alfthan G, Karvonen AM, Genuneit J, Lauener RP, Dalphin JC, Hyvärinen A, Pfefferle P, Riedler J, Weber J, Roduit C, Kaulek V, Braun-Fahrländer C, von Mutius E, Pekkanen J; the PASTURE study group with B Schaub. Serum vitamin E concentrations at 1 year and risk of atopy, atopic dermatitis, wheezing, and asthma in childhood: the PASTURE study.

Allergy. 2014 Jan;69(1):87-94.
26. Mustonen K, Orivuori L, Keski-Nisula L, Hyvärinen A, Pfefferle PI, Riedler J, Dalphin JC, Genuneit J, Lauener R, Roduit C, Braun-Fahrländer C, Weber J, Schaub B, von Mutius E, Pekkanen J, Vaarala O; and the PASTURE Study Group. Inflammatory response and IgE sensitization at early age. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013 Jun;24(4):395-401.
27. Michel S, Busato F, Genuneit J, Pekkanen J, Dalphin JC, Riedler J, Mazaleyrat N, Weber J, Karvonen AM, Hirvonen MR, Braun-Fahrländer C, Lauener R, von Mutius E, Kabesch M, Tost J; PASTURE study group with Bianca Schaub.

Farm exposure and time trends in early childhood may influence DNA methylation in genes related to asthma and allergy. Allergy. 2013 Mar;68(3):355-64.
28. Depner M, Ege M, Genuneit J, Pekkanen J, Roponen M, Hirvonen MR, Dalphone JC, Kaulek V, Krauss-Etschmann S, Riedler J, Braun-Fahrländner C, Roduit C, Lauener R, Pfefferle P, Weber J, von Mutius E and the PASTURE STUDY group: with Bianca Schaub. Atopic sensitization in the first year of life, J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Mar;131(3):781-8.

29. Mustonen K, Keski-Nisula L, Vaarala O, Pfefferle PI, Renz H, Riedler J, Dalphin JC, Buechele G, Lauener R, Braun-Fahrländer C, von Mutius E, Pekkanen J; PASTURE Study Group with Schaub B. Few associations between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and environmental factors in 4.5-year-old children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012 Sep;23(6):522-8.
30. Karvonen AM, Hyvärinen A, Gehring U, Korppi M, Doekes G, Riedler J, Braun-Fahrländer C, Bitter S, Schmid S, Keski-Nisula L, Roponen M, Kaulek V, Dalphin JC, Pfefferle PI, Renz H, Büchele G, von Mutius E, Pekkanen J; PASTURE Study Group with Bianca Schaub.

Exposure to microbial agents in home dust and wheezing, atopic dermatitis and atopic sensitization in early childhood: a birth cohort study in rural areas.Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Aug;42(8):1246-56.
31. Roduit C, Frei R, Loss G, Büchele G, Weber J, Depner M, Loeliger S, Dalphin ML, Roponen M, Hyvärinen A, Riedler J, Dalphin JC, Pekkanen J, von Mutius E, Braun-Fahrländer C, Lauener R; Protection Against Allergy–Study in Rural Environments study group with Bianca Schaub.

Development of atopic dermatitis according to age of onset and association with early-life exposures. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jul;130(1):130-6.e5.
32. Kerzel S, Dehne J, Rogosch T, Schaub B, Maier RF, Zemlin M. T(H)17 cell frequency in peripheral blood from children with allergic asthma correlates with the level of asthma control. J Pediatr. 2012 Dec;161(6):1172-4.
33. Loss G, Bitter S., Wohlgesinger J., Frei R, Roduit C, Genuneit J, Pekkanen J, Roponen M, Hirvonen MR, Dalphin JC, Dalphin ML, Riedler J, von Mutius E, Weber J, Kabesch M, Michel S, Braun-Fahrländer C, Lauener R, and the PASTURE STUDY group: with Bianca Schaub, Prenatal and early life exposures alters expression of innate immunity genes: the PASTURE cohort study.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Aug;130(2):523-530.e9.
34. Matthias Griese, Jan Ripper, Anke Sibbersen, Pia Lohse, Peter Lohse, Candid Brasch, Andrea Schams, Asli Pamir, Bianca Schaub, Oliver Münsterer, Carola Schön, Thomas Nicolai, Karl Reiter, Aki Hektor. Long-term follow-up and treatment of congenital alveolar proteinosis due to a homozygous p.Ser25X mutation in exon 3 of the CSF2RA gene. BMC Pediatrics 2011, 11:72.
35. Caroline Roduit, Johanna Wohlgensinger, Remo Frei, Sondhja Bitter, Christian Bieli, Susanne Loeliger, Josef Rielder, Michael Kabesch, Bianca Schaub, Erika von Mutius, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Roger Lauener and the PASTURE study group.

co-authors: Finland: Juha Pekkanen, France: Jean-Charles Dalphin, Ulm: Gisela Buechele, Netherlands: Gert Doekes. Prenatal animal contact and gene expression of innate immunity receptors at birth are associated with atopic dermatitis, J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Jan;127(1):179-85, 185.e1.
36. Schimke, LF, Julie Sawalle, Joachim Roesler, Andreas Wollenberg, Anita Rack, Michael Borte, Nikolaus Rieber, Reinhold Cremer, Eberhart Maaß, Roland Dopfer, Janine Reichenbach, Volker Wahn, Manfred Hoenig, Annette F Jansson, Angela Roesen-Wolff, , Reinhard Seger, Bianca Schaub, Harry R Hill, Hans D Ochs, Troy R Torgerson, Bernd H Belohradsky, and Ellen D Renner. Diagnostic approach to the hyper-IgE syndrome: Immunological and clinical key findings to differentiate HIES from atopic dermatitis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010, Vol 126, Issue 3, Sept 2010, p 611-617.e1.
37. Pfefferle PI, Büchele G, Blümer N, Roponen M, Ege MJ, Genuneit J, Hyvärinen A, Lauener R, Pekkanen J, Riedler J, Dalphin JC, Brunekeef B, Braun-Fahrländer C, von Mutius E, Renz H and the PASTURE Study group. Collaborators: Weiss G, Iblagger E, Humer C, Russeger M, Hirvonen MR, Juntunen R, Tiihonen R, Tiittanen P, Kauppila T, Nevalainen A, Remes S, Viuttoan DA, Dalphin ML, Piarroux R, Reboux G, Roussel S, Sudre B, Schaub B, Schmid S, Korherr N, Quast D, Zimmermann M, Bitter S, Sennhauser FH, Loeliger S, Steinle J, Frei R. Cord blood cytokines are modulated by maternal farming activities and consumption of farm products during pregnancy — The PASTURE-Study. J Allergy Clin Immunol.

2010 Jan;125(1):108-15.e1-3.
38. Schedel M, Pinto LA, Schaub B, Rosenstiel P, Cherkasov P, Cameron L, Klopp N, Illig T, Vogelberg C, Weiland S., von Mutius E, Lohoff M, Kabesch M. IRF-1 gene variations influence IgE regulation and atopy. AJRCCM, 2008 Mar 15;177(6):613-21.
39. Ngoc PL, Rifas-Shiman S, Litonjua AA, Tzianabos AO, Schaub B, Ruiz-Pérez B, Tantisira KG, Finn PW, Gillman MW, Weiss ST, Gold DR. Cord blood cytokines and acute lower respiratory illnesses in the first year of life.

Pediatrics. 2007 Jan;119(1):e171-8.
40. Gold DR, Willwerth BM, Tantisira KG, Finn PW, Schaub B, Perkins DL, Tziabanos A, Ly NP, Schroeter, C, Gibbons FK, Campos H, Oken E, Gillman MW, Palmer LJ, Ryan LJ, Weiss ST. Associations of cord blood fatty acids with lymphocyte proliferation, IL-13 and interferon-g. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Apr; 117(4):931-8.
41. Willwerth BM, Schaub B, Tantisira KG, Gold DR, Palmer LJ, Litonjua AA, Perkins DL, Schroeter C, Gibbons FK, Gillman MW, Weiss ST, Finn PW. Prenatal, perinatal, and heritable influences on cord blood immune responses. Ann Every Asthma Immunol., March 2006; 96:445-453.

42. Velasco G, Campo M, Manrique O, Abdelouahab B, He H, Arestides RS, Schaub B, Mueller TF, Perkins DL, Finn PW. Toll-like Receptor 2 or 4 Agonists Modulate Allergic Responses. Am J Resp Cell and Mol Biol, Vol. 32. Pp218-224, 2005.
43. Gibbons F, Israel E, Deykin A, Schaub B, Manrique OJ, He H, Perkins D, Finn PW. The Combined Effects of Zafirlukast, Prednisone, and Inhaled budesonide on IL-13 and IFN-g Secretion. J Clin Immunol. 2005 Sep;25(5):437-44.

Books, book chapters
1. Schaub B, Prescott S. The maturation of immune functions in pregnancy. In Allergy,Immunology and tolerance in early childhood., Elsevier , United Kingdom ISBN/ISSN 978-0-12-420226-9.

Chapter 21, 2016.
2. F. Nagel, E von Mutius, B. Schaub, Ambulanzmanual, Kapitel Asthma, Kapitel Neurodermitis, Kapitel Allergische Reaktionen. Springer Verlag. 3. Auflage, 2012.
3. B. Schaub, Pädiatrische Pneumologie: Kapitel Entwicklung der Abwehr, Springer Verlag, 2012
4. B. Schaub, Pädiatrische Pneumologie in der Pädiatrie — Diagnostik: Georg Thieme Verlag, 2011: Kapitel Lungenfunktionsdiagnostik: Bodyplethysmographie, Oszillometrische Atemwegswiderstandsmessung, Broncholysetestung und Provokationsverfahren, S.

151-184. Kapitel Diagnostische Schnittstellen zu anderen Fächern: Allergologie, S. 281-291.
5. PW Finn and B. Schaub. Encyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine. Chapter: Leukocytes, Mononuclear cells: T cells. April, 557-563, 2006.
6.  B. Schaub, R. Lauener, S. Prescott. Immunology and Defence mechanism of the developing lung. Eur Resp. Mon, 2006, 37, 1-19.

Reviews

1. Nowak E., Neuner A., Landgraf-Rauf K, Schaub B. Allergie und Asthma. Up2date, 2017.
2.

Rieger MT, Schaub B. Asthma and wheeze during childhood. MMW Fortschr Med. 2016 Nov;158(20):72-78. Review.
3. K. Landgraf, B. Anselm, B. Schaub. The puzzle of immune phenotypes of childhood asthma. Invited  review. Mol Cell Pediatr. 2016 Dec;3(1):27. doi: 10.1186/s40348-016-0057-3. Review.
4. B Schaub, D. Vercelli. Environmental protection from allergic diseases: From humans to mice and back. Curr Opin Immunol. 2015 Jul 23;36:88-93. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2015.07.004. Review. PMID:26210896.
5. PC Schröder, J Li, G WK Wong, and B Schaub, The rural-urban enigma of allergy: what can we study from studies around the world?

Ped Allergy Imm. 2015, Jan 24. Doi  10.1111/pai.12341.
6. Klucker E, Rädler D, Schaub B. Prädiktive Marker einer Allergieentwicklung bei Geburt. Allergologie, Jahrgang 37, Nr 3/ 2014, S99-107.
7. Rädler D, Schaub B. Immune mechanisms and childhood asthma. Invited review. Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 2014.
8. Rädler, D, Schaub B. Immunology and Defence mechanisms. ERS Handbook 2013.
9. Lluis A, Schaub B. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. Lessons from the farm-environment.

2012 Apr;12(2):158-63.
10. Nagel, F, Schaub B. Pädiatrische Praxis, 2011. Allergietestung in der pädiatrischen Praxis.
11. Schaub, B. Ärzte Woche, 28, Sept. 2010. Wie die Mutter so das Helpful ? Asthma bronchiale: Wie sich pränatale Einflüsse auf die Immunentwicklung im Kindesalter auswirken.
12. Schaub B., Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 2010. 158: 137-141, Asthma. Prenatal influences on immune development in childhood.
13. Schaub B., Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 2009.158: 71-86, Diagnostic tests for allergic diseases.
14. Schaub B, R. Lauener, E. von Mutius: The numerous faces of the hygiene hypothesis. J Allergy Clin Immunol.

2006 May; 117(5):969-77; quiz 978.
15. Schaub, B, von Mutius, E. Obesity and asthma, what are the links? Current Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 5(2):185-193, April 2005. Auswahl als Medscape Artikel für CME Credits. May 25, 2005.
16. Schaub B, von Mutius E. The marketing of asthma and allergies. Lancet 2004 Oct 16; 364(9443):1389-90.
17. Bellou A*, Schaub B*, Ting L and Finn PW. Toll receptors modulate allergic responses: interaction with dendritic cells, T cells and mast cells. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol., 3: 487-494, 2003. * Both authors contributed equally.

Influence of life-style factors on the development of the immune system and allergies in East and West Germany

Our website for the participants of the LISA study: www.lisastudie.de (in german).

Study objectives:

  1. To determine the influence of life-style factors, environmental exposures, and health-related behaviour on the development of the immune system and the incidence of allergic diseases in children.
  2. To determine the influence of traffic emissions and genetics

Study aims:

  1. Do exposures early in infancy differ between the study regions (e.g.

    infections, exposure to allergens, health-related behaviour of the parents)?

  2. Are regional differences (East/West Germany) in humoral and cellular immune parameters and in the prevalence of allergic diseases detectable in children?
  3. What is the quantitative influence of pollutants, and indoor and outdoor allergens on the development of allergies?
  4. What are the genetic influences on allergies and other illnesses of the immune system or respiratory tract? How do genetic factors and environmental factors (nutrition, pollutants) interact?

Study design:
Prospective cohort study in 4 regions of Germany (Munich, Leipzig, Wesel, Bad Honnef)
Recruitment period: 11/97-01/99, Follow-up since birth.

Study population:
3097 healthy, fullterm newborns were included in the study.

Study area:
1467 newborns from Munich, 976 from Leipzig, 348 from Wesel, and 306 from Bad Honnef.

Study methods:

  1. Exposure assessment: measurement of home dust mite, cat allergens, and of endotoxin; in a subpopulation indoor measurement of volatile organic compounds
  2. Questionnaires: monthly protocols during the first year of life, questionnaires every 6 months until age 2 years and thereafter at age 4, 6, 10 and 15 years.

  3. Blood analyses: cord blood IgE, at age 2 years specific IgE, IgG subclasses, antibodies directed against viruses, immunisation antibodies; in a subpopulation measurement of intracellular cytokines in T lymphocytes and surface antigen expression of lymphocytes (at birth and at age 2 years). Blood analysis at age of 6, 10 and 15 years.
  4. Medical examination at age 2, 6, 10 and 15 years.

Current status:
The 15-year follow-up was completed. The 20-year follow-up will start in 2017.

Investigators:
Marie Standl (Principal Investigator)

Collaboration:
Study middle Munich: Helmholtz Zentrum München — Institute of Epidemiology, PI: M.

Standl; The Department of Pediatrics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, PI: S. Koletzko, Technical University of Munich, Dept. of Pediatrics, PI: C.P. Bauer.
Study Middle Leipzig: UFZ-Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle; PI: G. Herberth,
Study Region Rhineland: Marien-Hospital Wesel, Department of Pediatrics; PI: A. von Berg. IUF Institute of Environmental Research. PI T. Schikowski. Medical Praxis for Children, Bad Honnef, PI: B.

Schaaf.

Funding:
Partly by BMBF (Public Health Forschungsverbund Bayern), IUF, EU

Contact:
Helmholtz Zentrum München
Institute of Epidemiology
Dr. Marie Standl
Ingolstädter Landstraße 1
D-85764 Neuherberg
Tel. +49-(0)89-3187-2952
Fax +49-(0)89-3187-3380
[email protected]@helmholtz-muenchen.de


Related publications:

Harris C, Buyken A, Koletzko S, von Berg A, Berdel D, Schikowski T, Koletzko B, Heinrich J, Standl M.
Dietary Fatty Acids and Changes in Blood Lipids during Adolescence: The Role of Substituting Nutrient Intakes.
Nutrients. 2017 Feb 11;9(2).

Abstract

Flexeder C, Thiering E, Koletzko S, Berdel D, Lehmann I, von Berg A, Hoffmann B, Bauer CP, Heinrich J, Schulz H.
Higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with improved FEV1 and FVC in adolescence.
Eur Respir J. 2017 Apr 26;49(4). pii: 1601804.
Abstract

Tischer C, Weikl F, Probst AJ, Standl M, Heinrich J, Pritsch K.
Urban Dust Microbiome: Impact on Later Atopy and Wheezing.
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Dec;124(12):1919-1923.
Abstract

Thiering E, Markevych I, Brüske I, Fuertes E, Kratzsch J, Sugiri D, Hoffmann B, von Berg A, Bauer CP, Koletzko S, Berdel D, Heinrich J.
Associations of Residential Long-Term Air Pollution Exposures and Satellite-Derived Greenness with Insulin Resistance in German Adolescents.
Environ Health Perspect.

2016 Aug;124(8):1291-8.
Abstract

Markevych I, Smith MP, Jochner S, Standl M, Brüske I, von Berg A, Bauer CP, Fuks K, Koletzko S, Berdel D, Heinrich J, Schulz H.
Neighbourhood and physical activity in German adolescents: GINIplus and LISAplus.
Environ Res. 2016 May;147:284-93.
Abstract

Fuertes E, Standl M, Forns J, Berdel D, Garcia-Aymerich J, Markevych I, Schulte-Koerne G, Sugiri D, Schikowski T, Tiesler CM10, Heinrich J11.
Traffic-related air pollution and hyperactivity/inattention, dyslexia and dyscalculia in adolescents of the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts.
Environ Int.

2016 Dec;97:85-92.
Abstract

Tischer C, Casas L, Wouters IM, Doekes G, Garcia-Esteban R, Gehring U, Hyvärinen A, Oldenwening M, Kerkhof M, Sunyer J, Standl M, Thiering E, Torrent M10, Heinrich J8; HITEA study group.
Early exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma up to 10 years of age: results of the HITEA study.
Eur Respir J. 2015 Feb;45(2):328-37.
Abstract

Tiesler CM, Birk M, Thiering E, Kohlböck G, Koletzko S, Bauer CP, Berdel D, von Berg A, Babisch W, Heinrich J; GINIplus and LISAplus Study Groups.
Exposure to road traffic noise and children’s behavioural problems and sleep disturbance: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.
Environ Res.

2013 May;123:1-8.
Abstract

Tischer, C.G., Hohmann, C., Thiering, E., Herbarth, O., Müller, A., Henderson, J., Granell, R., Fantini, M.P., Luciano, L., Bergström, A., Kull, I., Link, E., von Berg, A., Kuehni, C.E., Strippoli, M.P., Gehring, U., Wijga, A., Eller, E., Bindslev-Jensen, C., Keil, T., Heinrich, J., ENRIECO consortium:
Meta-analysis of mould and dampness exposure on asthma and allergy in eight European birth cohorts: an ENRIECO initiative.
Allergy. 2011 Dec;66(12):1570-9
Abstract

Flexeder, C., Thiering, E., Brüske, I., Koletzko, S., Bauer, C.-P., Wichmann, H.-E., Mansmann, U., von Berg, A., Berdel, D., Krämer, U., Schaaf, B., Lehmann, I., Herbarth, O., Heinrich, J.:
Growth velocity during infancy and onset of asthma in school-aged children.
Allergy 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2011.02748.x
Abstract

Tiesler, C.M., Chen, C.M., Sausenthaler, S., Herbarth, O., Lehmann, I., Schaaf, B., Krämer, U., von Berg, A., von Kries, R., Wichmann, H.E., Heinrich, J.; The LISA Study Group:
Passive smoking and behavioural problems in children: Results from the LISAplus prospective birth cohort study.
Environ Res.

2011 Nov;111(8):1173-1179. Epub 2011 Jul 20
Abstract

Rzehak P, Thijs C, Standl M, Mommers M, Glaser C, Jansen E, Klopp N, Koppelman GH, Singmann P, Postma DS, Sausenthaler S, Dagnelie PC, van den Brandt PA, Koletzko B, Heinrich J, and the KOALA and the LISA study group:
Variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster, blood levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and eczema in children within the first 2 years of life.
PLoS One 2010 Oct 11;5(10):e13261.
Abstract

Chen CM, Weidinger S, Klopp N, Sausenthaler S, Bischof W, Herbarth O, Bauer M, Borte M, Schaaf B, Lehmann I, Behrendt H, Krämer U, Berdel D, von Berg A, Bauer CP, Koletzko S, Illig T, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J; LISA and GINI Study Group:
Common variants in FCER1A influence entire serum IgE levels from cord blood up to six years of life.
Allergy.

2009 Sep;64(9):1327-32. Epub 2009 Feb 24.
Abstract

Morgenstern V, Zutavern A, Cyrys J, Brockow I, Koletzko S, Kramer U, Behrendt H, Herbarth O, von Berg A, Bauer CP, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J, Gini And Lisa Study Group:
Atopic Diseases, Allergic Sensitisation and Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Children.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Jun 15;177(12):1331-7.
Abstract

Brockow I, Zutavern A, Franke K, Schaaf B., von Berg A, Krämer U, Lehmann I, Herbarth O, Borte M, Grübl A, Bauer CP, Wichmann HE and Heinrich J.:
Einfluss von Lebensbedingungen und Verhaltensweisen auf die Entwicklung von Immunsystem und Allergien im Ost-West-Vergleich (LISA).
Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 2008, Volume 156/3, 249-255.

Chen CH, Rzehak P, Zutavern A, Fahlbusch B, Bischof W, Herbarth O, Borte M, Lehmann I, Behrendt H, Krämer U, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J, and the LISA Study Group:
Longitudinal Study on Cat Allergen Exposure and the Development of Allergy in Young Children.
J Allergy Clin Immunol.

2007 May;119(5):1148-55.
Abstract

Slama R, Morgenstern V, Cyrys J, Zutavern A, Herbarth O, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J; LISA Study Group.
Traffic-related atmospheric pollutants levels during pregnancy and offspring’s term birth weight: a study relying on a land-use regression exposure model.
Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Sep;115(9):1283-92.
Abstract

Sausenthaler S, Koletzko S, Schaaf B, Lehmann I, Borte M, Herbarth O, von Berg A, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J for the LISA Study Group:
Maternal diet during pregnancy in relation to eczema and allergic sensitization in the offspring at 2 years of age.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;85(2):530-7.
Abstract

Zutavern A, Brockow I, Schaaf B, Bolte G, von Berg A, Diez U, Borte M, Herbarth O, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J, LISA Study Group:
Timing of Solid Food Introduction in Relation to Atopic Dermatitis and Atopic Sensitization: Results From a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.
Pediatrics 2006; 117/2:401-411.
Abstract

Gehring U, Bischof W, Borte M, Herbarth O, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J for the LISA study group:
Levels and predictors of endotoxin in mattress dust samples from East and West German homes.
Indoor Air 2004; 14: 284-292.
Abstract

Negele K, Heinrich J, Borte M, von Berg A, Schaaf B, Lehmann I, Wichmann H-E, Bolte G for the LISA Study Group:
Mode of delivery and the development of atopic disease during the first 2 years of life.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2004: 15:48-54.
Abstract

Heissenhuber A, Heinrich J, Fahlbusch B, Borte M, Wichmann HE, Bolte G for the LISA Study Group:
Health impacts of second-hand exposure to cat allergen Fel d 1 in infants.
Allergy 2003; 58:154-157.
Abstract

Lehmann I, Thoelke A, Weiss M, Schlink U, Schulz R, Diez U, Sierig G, Emmrich F, Jacob B, Belcredi P, Bolte G, Heinrich J, Herbarth O, Wichmann HE, Borte M:
T cell reactivity in neonates from an East and a West German city – results of the LISA study.
Allergy 2002; 57:129-136.
Abstract

Gehring U, Cyrys J, Sedlmeir G, Brunekreef B, Bellander T, Fischer P, Bauer CP, Reinhardt D, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J:
Traffic-related air pollution and respiratory health during the first 3 yrs of life.
Eur Respir J 2002; 19:690-698.
Abstract

Heinrich J, Bolte G, Hölscher B, Douwes J, Lehmann I, Fahlbusch B, Bischof W, Weiss M, Borte M, Wichmann HE, on behalf of the LISA study group:
Allergens and endotoxin on mothers’ mattresses and entire immunoglobulin E in cord blood of neonates.
Eur Respir J 2002; 20: 617-623.
Abstract

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Overview Projects

Abstract

Introduction Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common allergic diseases that cause a decrease in quality of life.

Over the final decades, the increase in the number of cases is supposed to be a result of industrialization and lifestyle changes. Vitamin D, which is a steroid hormone, has a significant immunomodulatory and antioxidant role in the human body.

Objective The objective of the present study is to investigate the role of 1α-25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels in allergic rhinitis patients and to compare them to the levels found in the healthy population.

Methods A entire of 256 participants were included in the present study.

Allergic rhinitis is diagnosed with the assist of the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines confirmed through skin prick tests. Control subjects were selected among people without allergy history, which was also confirmed through skin prick tests. The levels of 1α-25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, immunoglobulin E (IgE), and eosinophil counts were measured in blood samples from both groups.

Results The mean worth of serum levels of 1α-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was 25.5 ± 3.74 in the allergic rhinitis group, and 31.58 ± 3.85 in the control subjects.

This difference reveals statistically-decreased levels in the allergic rhinitis group (p < 0.05). The entire IgE levels are increased in the allergic rhinitis group (p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with the serum levels of 1α-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (r = - 0.259, p < 0.05).

Conclusion Lower serum levels of 1α-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were detected in the allergic rhinitis population.

This data is also correlated to the IgE response in the study group. A supplement of 1α-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in deficient patients might be helpful to relieve symptoms and signs of allergic rhinitis, but further studies are needed.

Declarations Section

Ethical approval and consent to participate: The study was performed according to the rules of the Ethics Committee of Kartal Education and Research, with the reference number 2014.145.236.

Informed consent was taken from each participant.

Availability of data and materials: Please contact author for data request.

Author contribution

MGD participated in the whole process of the study design, data analysis, data collection, statistical analyses, writing and drafting the article.


Tests & diagnosis

A physician will consider patient history and act out a thorough physical examination if a person reports having hay-fever-like symptoms.

If necessary, the physician will do an allergy test. According to the Mayo Clinic, people can get a skin-prick test, in which doctors prick the skin on a person’s arm or upper back with diverse substances to see if any cause an allergic reaction, such as a raised bump called a hive. [7 Strange Signs You’re Having an Allergic Reaction]

Blood tests for allergies are also available. This test rates the immune system’s response to a specific allergen by measuring the quantity of allergy-causing antibodies in the bloodstream, according to the Mayo Clinic.


Hay fever treatments

Dr. Sarita Patil, an allergist with Massachusetts General Hospital’s Allergy Associates in Boston, talked to Live Science about strategies for outdoor lovers with seasonal allergies.

Patil suggested figuring out exactly what type of pollen you’re allergic to, and then avoiding planning outdoor activities during peak pollinating times in the months when those plants are in bloom.

Numerous grasses, for example, typically pollinate in tardy spring and early summer and release most of their spores in the afternoon and early evening.

Her other strategies: Be capable to identify the pollen perpetrator by sight; monitor pollen counts before scheduling outdoor time; go exterior at a time of day when the plants that make you go achoo are not pollinating; and wear protective gear love sunglasses, among other tips.

[7 Strategies for Outdoor Lovers with Seasonal Allergies]

Allergy sufferers may also select to combat symptoms with medication designed to shut below or trick the immune sensitivity in the body. Whether over-the-counter or prescription, most allergy pills work by releasing chemicals into the body that bind naturally to histamine — the protein that reacts to the allergen and causes an immune response — negating the protein’s effect.

Other allergy remedies attack the symptoms at the source. Nasal sprays contain athletic ingredients that decongest by soothing irritated blood vessels in the nose, while eye drops both moisturize and reduce inflammation.

Doctors may also prescribe allergy shots, Josephson said.

For kids, allergy medications are tricky. A 2017 nationally representative poll of parents with kids between ages 6 and 12 found that 21% of parents said they had trouble figuring out the correct dose of allergy meds for their child; 15% of parents gave a kid an adult form of the allergy medicine, and 33% of these parents also gave their kid the adult dose of that medicine.

Doctors may also recommend allergy shots, a neti pot that can rinse the sinuses, or a Grossan Hydropulse — an irrigating system that cleans the nose of pollens, infection and environmental irritants, Josephson said.

Alternative and holistic options, along with acupuncture, may also assist people with hay fever, Josephson said.

People can also avoid pollen by keeping their windows closed in the spring, and by using air purifiers and air conditioners at home.

Probiotics may also be helpful in stopping those itchy eyes and runny noses. A 2015 review published in the journal International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology found that people who suffer from hay fever may benefit from using probiotics, or «good bacteria,» thought to promote a healthy gut.

Although the jury is still out on whether probiotics are an effective treatment for seasonal allergies, the researchers noted that these gut bacteria could hold the body’s immune system from flaring up in response to allergens — something that could reduce allergy symptoms. [5 Myths About Probiotics]

Additional resources:

This article was updated on April 30, 2019, by Live Science Contributor Rachel Ross.

What’s really behind ‘gluten sensitivity’?

By Kelly Servick

The patients weren’t crazy—Knut Lundin was certain of that. But their ailment was a mystery.

They were convinced gluten was making them ill. Yet they didn’t own celiac disease, an autoimmune reaction to that often-villainized tangle of proteins in wheat, barley, and rye. And they tested negative for a wheat allergy. They occupied a medical no man’s land.

About a decade ago, gastroenterologists love Lundin, based at the University of Oslo, came across more and more of those enigmatic cases. «I worked with celiac disease and gluten for so numerous years,» he says, «and then came this wave.» Gluten-free choices began appearing on restaurant menus and creeping onto grocery store shelves. By 2014, in the United States alone, an estimated 3 million people without celiac disease had sworn off gluten.

It was simple to assume that people claiming to be «gluten sensitive» had just been roped into a food fad.

«Generally, the reaction of the gastroenterologist [was] to tell, ‘You don’t own celiac disease or wheat allergy. Goodbye,’» says Armin Alaedini, an immunologist at Columbia University. «A lot of people thought this is perhaps due to some other [food] sensitivity, or it’s in people’s heads.»

But a little community of researchers started searching for a link between wheat components and patients’ symptoms—commonly abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea, and sometimes headaches, fatigue, rashes, and joint pain. That wheat really can make nonceliac patients ill is now widely accepted.

But that’s about as far as the agreement goes.

As data trickle in, entrenched camps own emerged. Some researchers are convinced that numerous patients own an immune reaction to gluten or another substance in wheat—a nebulous illness sometimes called nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS).

Others believe most patients are actually reacting to an excess of poorly absorbed carbohydrates present in wheat and numerous other foods. Those carbohydrates—called FODMAPs, for fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols—can cause bloating when they ferment in the gut.

If FODMAPs are the primary culprit, thousands of people may be on gluten-free diets with the support of their doctors and dietitians but without excellent reason.

Those competing theories were on display in a session on wheat sensitivity at a celiac disease symposium held at Columbia in March. In back-to-back talks, Lundin made the case for FODMAPs, and Alaedini for an immune reaction. But in an irony that underscores how muddled the field has become, both researchers started their quests believing something completely different.

Known wheat-related illnesses own clear mechanisms and markers.

People with celiac disease are genetically predisposed to launch a self-destructive immune response when a component of gluten called gliadin penetrates their intestinal lining and sets off inflammatory cells in the tissue under. People with a wheat allergy reply to wheat proteins by churning out a class of antibodies called immunoglobulin E that can set off vomiting, itching, and shortness of breath. The puzzle, for both doctors and researchers, is patients who lack both the telltale antibodies and the visible damage to their intestines but who feel genuine relief when they cut out gluten-containing food.

Some doctors own begun to approve and even recommend a gluten-free diet.

«Ultimately, we’re here not to do science, but to improve quality of life,» says Alessio Fasano, a pediatric gastroenterologist at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston who has studied NCGS and written a book on living gluten-free. «If I own to throw bones on the ground and glance at the moon to make somebody better, even if I don’t understand what that means, I’ll do it.»

Like numerous doctors, Lundin believed that (fad dieters and superstitious eaters aside) some patients own a genuine wheat-related ailment. His group helped dispel the notion that NCGS was purely psychosomatic.

They surveyed patients for unusual levels of psychological distress that might express itself as physical symptoms. But the surveys showed no differences between those patients and people with celiac disease, the team reported in 2012. As Lundin bluntly puts it: «We know they are not crazy.»

Still, skeptics worried that the field had seized on gluten with shaky evidence that it was the culprit. After every, nobody eats gluten in isolation. «If we did not know about the specific role of gluten in celiac disease, we would never own thought gluten was responsible for [NCGS],» says Stefano Guandalini, a pediatric gastroenterologist at the University of Chicago Medical Middle in Illinois.

«Why blame gluten?»

Defenders of NCGS generally acknowledge that other components of wheat might contribute to symptoms. In 2012, a group of proteins in wheat, rye, and barley called amylase trypsin inhibitors emerged as a potential offender, for example, after a team led by biochemist Detlef Schuppan of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany (then at Harvard Medical School in Boston) reported that those proteins can provoke immune cells.

But without biological markers to identify people with NCGS, researchers own relied on self-reported symptoms measured through a «gluten challenge»: Patients rate how they feel before and after cutting out gluten.

Then doctors reintroduce gluten or a placebo—ideally disguised in indistinguishable pills or snacks—to see whether the symptoms tick back up.

Alaedini has recently hit on a more objective set of possible biological markers—much to his own surprise. «I entered this completely as a skeptic,» he says. Over his career, he has gravitated toward studying spectrum disorders, in which diverse symptoms own yet to be united under a clear biological cause—and where public misinformation abounds. His team published a study in 2013, for example, that debunked the favorite suggestion that children with autism had high rates of Lyme disease.

«I do studies [where] there is a void,» he says.

In NCGS, Alaedini saw another poorly defined spectrum disorder. He did accept that patients without celiac disease might somehow be sensitive to wheat, on the basis of several trials that measured symptoms after a blinded challenge. But he was not convinced by previous studies claiming that NCGS patients were more likely than other people to own certain antibodies to gliadin. Numerous of those studies lacked a healthy control group, he says, and relied on commercial antibody kits that gave murky and inconsistent readings.

In 2012, he contacted researchers at the University of Bologna in Italy to obtain blood samples from 80 patients their team had identified as gluten sensitive on the basis of a gluten challenge.

He wanted to test the samples for signs of a unique immune response—a set of signaling molecules diverse from those in the blood of healthy volunteers and celiac patients. He wasn’t optimistic. «I thought if we were going to see something, love with a lot of spectrum conditions that I own looked at, we would see little differences.»

The results shocked him. Compared with both healthy people and those with celiac, these patients had significantly higher levels of a certain class of antibodies against gluten that propose a short-lived, systemic immune response. That didn’t mean gluten itself was causing disease, but the finding hinted that the barrier of those patients’ intestines might be faulty, allowing partially digested gluten to get out of the gut and interact with immune cells in the blood.

Other elements—such as immune response–provoking bacteria—also might be escaping. Certain enough, the team found elevated levels of two proteins that indicate an inflammatory response to bacteria. And when 20 of the same patients spent 6 months on a gluten-free diet, their blood levels of those markers declined.

For Alaedini, the beginnings of a mechanism emerged: Some still-unidentified wheat component prompts the intestinal lining to become more permeable. (An imbalance in gut microbes might be a predisposing factor.) Components of bacteria then seem to sneak past immune cells in the underlying intestinal tissue and make their way to the bloodstream and liver, prompting inflammation.

«This is a genuine condition, and there can be objective, biological markers for it,» Alaedini says.

«That study changed a lot of minds, including my own.»

The study also impressed Guandalini, a longtime skeptic about the role of gluten. It «opens the way to finally reach an identifiable marker for this condition,» he says.

But others see the immune-response explanation as a red herring. To them, the primary villain is FODMAPs. The term, coined by gastroenterologist Peter Gibson at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, and his team, encompasses a smorgasbord of common foods. Onions and garlic; legumes; milk and yogurt; and fruits including apples, cherries, and mangoes are every high in FODMAPs.

So is wheat: Carbs in wheat called fructans can account for as much as half of a person’s FODMAP intake, dietitians in Gibson’s group own estimated. The team found that those compounds ferment in the gut to cause symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, such as abdominal pain, bloating, and gas.

Gibson has endless been skeptical of studies implicating gluten in such symptoms, arguing that those findings are hopelessly clouded by the nocebo effect, in which the mere expectation of swallowing the dreaded ingredient worsens symptoms.

His team found that most patients couldn’t reliably distinguish pure gluten from a placebo in a blinded test. He believes that numerous people feel better after eliminating wheat not because they own calmed some intricate immune reaction, but because they’ve reduced their intake of FODMAPs.

Lundin, who was firmly in the immune-reaction camp, didn’t believe that FODMAPs could explain away every his patients. «I wanted to show that Peter was wrong,» he says. During a 2-week sabbatical in the Monash lab, he found some quinoa-based snack bars designed to disguise the taste and texture of ingredients.

«I said, ‘We’re going to take those muesli bars and we’re going to do the perfect study.’»

His team recruited 59 people on self-instituted gluten-free diets and randomized them to get one of three indistinguishable snack bars, containing isolated gluten, isolated FODMAP (fructan), or neither. After eating one type of bar daily for a week, they reported any symptoms. Then they waited for symptoms to resolve and started on a diverse bar until they had tested every three.

Before analyzing patient responses, Lundin was confident that gluten would cause the worst symptoms.

But when the study’s blind was lifted, only the FODMAP symptoms even cleared the bar for statistical significance. Twenty-four of the 59 patients had their highest symptom scores after a week of the fructan-laced bars. Twenty-two responded most to the placebo, and just 13 to gluten, Lundin and his collaborators—who included Gibson—reported final November in the journal Gastroenterology. Lundin now believes FODMAPs explain the symptoms in most wheat-avoiding patients. «My main reason for doing that study was to discover out a excellent method of finding gluten-sensitive individuals,» he says.

«And there were none. And that was fairly amazing.»

At the Columbia meeting, Alaedini and Lundin went head to head in consecutive talks titled «It’s the Wheat» and «It’s FODMAPS.» Each has a list of criticisms of the other’s study. Alaedini contends that by recruiting broadly from the gluten-free population, instead of finding patients who reacted to wheat in a challenge, Lundin likely failed to include people with a true wheat sensitivity. Extremely few of Lundin’s subjects reported symptoms exterior the intestines, such as rash or fatigue, that might point to a widespread immune condition, Alaedini says. And he notes that the increase in patients’ symptoms in response to the FODMAP snacks was just barely statistically significant.

Lundin, meanwhile, points out that the patients in Alaedini’s study didn’t go through a blinded challenge to check whether the immune markers he identified really spiked in response to wheat or gluten.

The markers may not be specific to people with a wheat sensitivity, Lundin says.

Despite the adversarial titles of their talks, the two researchers discover a lot of common ground. Alaedini agrees that FODMAPs explain some of the wheat-avoidance phenomenon. And Lundin acknowledges that some little population may really own an immune reaction to gluten or another component of wheat, though he sees no excellent way to discover them.

After the meeting, Elena Verdù, a gastroenterologist at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada, puzzled over the polarization of the field.

«I don’t understand why there is this need to be so dogmatic about ‘it is this, it is not that,’» she says.

She worries that the scientific confusion breeds skepticism toward people who avoid gluten for medical reasons. When she dines with celiac patients, she says, waiters sometimes meet requests for gluten-free food with smirks and questions. Meanwhile, the conflicting messages may send nonceliac patients below a food-avoidance rabbit hole. «Patients are withdrawing gluten first, then lactose, and then FODMAPs—and then they are on a really, really poor diet,» she says.

But Verdù believes careful research will ultimately break through the superstitions.

She is president of the North American Society for the Study of Celiac Disease, which this year awarded its first grant to study nonceliac wheat sensitivity. She’s hopeful that the search for biomarkers love those Alaedini has proposed will show that inside the monolith of gluten avoidance lurk multiple, nuanced conditions. «It will be difficult,» she says, «but we are getting closer.»

doi:10.1126/science.aau2590


Symptoms

The symptoms of allergic rhinitis may at first feel love those of a freezing. But unlike a freezing that may incubate before causing discomfort, symptoms of allergies generally appear almost as soon as a person encounters an allergen, such as pollen or mold.

Symptoms include itchy eyes, ears, nose or throat, sneezing, irritability, nasal congestion and hoarseness.

People may also experience cough, postnasal drip, sinus pressure or headaches, decreased sense of smell, snoring, sleep apnea, fatigue and asthma, Josephson said. [Oral Allergy Syndrome: 6 Ways to Avoid an Itchy, Tingling Mouth]

Many of these symptoms are the immune system’s overreaction as it attempts to protect the vital and sensitive respiratory system from exterior invaders. The antibodies produced by the body hold the foreign invaders out, but also cause the symptoms characteristic of allergic responses.

People can develop hay fever at any age, but most people are diagnosed with the disorder in childhood or early adulthood, according to the Mayo Clinic. Symptoms typically become less severe as people age.

Often, children may first experience food allergies and eczema, or itchy skin, before developing hay fever, Josephson said.

«This then worsens over the years, and patients then develop allergies to indoor allergens love dust and animals, or seasonal rhinitis, love ragweed, grass pollen, molds and tree pollen.»

Hay fever can also lead to other medical conditions. People who are allergic to weeds are more likely to get other allergies and develop asthma as they age, Josephson said. But those who get immunotherapy, such as allergy shots that assist people’s bodies get used to allergens, are less likely to develop asthma, he said.


Pollen count

How do scientists know how much pollen is in the air? They set a trap. The trap — generally a glass plate or rod coated with adhesive — is analyzed every few hours, and the number of particles collected is then averaged to reflect the particles that would pass through the area in any 24-hour period.

That measurement is converted to pollen per cubic meter. Mold counts work much the same way.

A pollen count is an imprecise measurement, scientists confess, and an arduous one — at the analysis stage, pollen grains are counted one by one under a microscope. It is also highly time-consuming to discern between types of pollen, so they are generally bundled into one variable. Given the imprecise nature of the measurement, entire daily pollen counts are often reported simply as low, moderate or high.

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology provides up-to-date pollen counts for U.S.

states.


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