What is the definition of a drug allergy
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
This academy’s website provides valuable information to assist readers determine the difference between colds, allergies, and sinusitis.
A primer guide on sinusitis also provides more specific information about the chronic version of the illness. Additional resources include a «virtual allergist» that helps you to review your symptoms, as well as a database on pollen counts.
American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI)
In addition to providing a comprehensive guide on sinus infections, the ACAAI website also contains a wealth of information on allergies, asthma, and immunology. The site’s useful tools include a symptom checker, a way to search for an allergist in your area, and a function that allows you to ask an allergist questions about your symptoms.
Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA)
For allergy sufferers, the AAFA website contains an easy-to-understand primer on sinusitis.
It also provides comprehensive information on various types of allergies, including those with risk factors for sinusitis.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The CDC website provides basic information on sinus infections and other respiratory illnesses, such as common colds, bronchitis, ear infections, flu, and sore throat. It offers guidance on how to get symptom relief for those illnesses, as well as preventative tips on practicing good hand hygiene, and a recommended immunization schedule.
U.S. National Library of Medicine
The U.S. National Library of Medicine is the world’s largest biomedical library.
As part of the National Institutes of Health, their website provides the basics on sinus infection. It also contains a number of links to join you with more information on treatments, diagnostic procedures, and related issues.
What causes an allergic reaction?
Doctors don’t know why some people experience allergies. Allergies appear to run in families and can be inherited. If you own a shut family member who has allergies, you’re at greater risk for developing allergies.
Although the reasons why allergies develop aren’t known, there are some substances that commonly cause an allergic reaction. People who own allergies are typically allergic to one or more of the following:
What are the symptoms of an allergic reaction?
The symptoms of an allergic reaction can vary from mild to severe.
If you become exposed to an allergen for the first time, your symptoms may be mild.
These symptoms may get worse if you repeatedly come into contact with the allergen.
Symptoms of a mild allergic reaction can include:
- nasal congestion (known as rhinitis)
- hives (itchy red spots on the skin)
- scratchy throat
- watery or itchy eyes
Severe allergic reactions can cause the following symptoms:
- nausea or vomiting
- abdominal cramping or pain
- heart palpitations
- difficulty swallowing
- swelling of the face, eyes, or tongue
- pain or tightness in the chest
- dizziness (vertigo)
- flushing of the face
- difficulty breathing
- fear or anxiety
A severe and sudden allergic reaction can develop within seconds after exposure to an allergen.
This type of reaction is known as anaphylaxis and results in life-threatening symptoms, including swelling of the airway, inability to breathe, and a sudden and severe drop in blood pressure.
If you experience this type of allergic reaction, seek immediate emergency assist. Without treatment, this condition can result in death within 15 minutes.
Including vaccine testing in an AEFI investigation
If it is appropriate to the working hypothesis on the possible cause of the vaccine reaction, collecting and testing a vaccine specimen may confirm or law out a suspected vaccine-associated cause of the AEFI.
For vaccine testing, collect a vial of the residual vaccine (if possible) from the health facility.
Retain adequate samples from the same site of unopened vaccine and diluent vials if the vaccine was reconstituted.
The samples should be maintained under correct storage conditions until a decision on testing is made.
If a vaccine is implicated in an AEFI case or cluster, it is rarely necessary to test the vaccine quality, which should already be part of the national regulatory protocols.PotencyPotencyA measure of strength or immunogenicity in vaccines. testing is of little worth and is only useful to determine reasons for lack of vaccine efficacy.
If a decision is made to test the vaccine (and where appropriate, the diluent), the test(s) chosen depend on the nature of the adverse event and the working hypotheses on the possible causes.
One or more of the following tests may be carried out:
- Chemical composition analysis: preservatives, adjuvant level, etc. (e.g. aluminium content); abnormal components (e.g. suspect drug used instead of vaccine or diluent),
- Visual test for clarity, presence of foreign matter, turbulence or discoloration,
- Biological tests for foreign substances or toxins if abnormal toxicity is suspected (note: OPV-neurovirulence testing is expensive and adequate samples are not generally available),
- Sterility testing (vaccine and/or injection equipment) if an infectious cause is suspected,
- Additional field performance information should be obtained from the vaccine manufacturer.
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Sinusitis can be a confusing thing to treat for anyone. Because a sinus infection can be so easily confused with a common freezing or an allergy, figuring out the best way to alleviate your symptoms can be difficult.
Even more challenging, a sinus infection can evolve over time from a viral infection to a bacterial infection, or even from a short-term acute infection to a long-term chronic illness.
We own provided for you the best sources of information on sinus infections to assist you rapidly define your ailment and get the best and most efficient treatment possible.
Favorite Resources for Finding a Specialist
American Rhinologic Society
Through research, education, and advocacy, the American Rhinologic Society is devoted to serving patients with nose, sinus, and skull base disorders.
Their website’s thorough coverage of sinus-related issues includes rarer conditions, such as fungal sinusitis, which are often excluded from other informational sites. It also provides a valuable search tool to discover a doctor, as well as links to other medical societies and resources that are useful for patients.
Their website contains an exhaustive guide on sinusitis and an easy-to-use «Find a Doctor» search tool.
ENThealth provides useful information on how the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) are all connected, along with information about sinusitis and other related illnesses and symptoms, such as rhinitis, deviated septum, and postnasal drip.
As part of the American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery, this website is equipped with the ability to assist you discover an ENT specialist in your area.
In most cases, people with allergies develop mild to moderate symptoms, such as watery eyes, a runny nose or a rash. But sometimes, exposure to an allergen can cause a life-threatening allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis.
This severe reaction happens when an over-release of chemicals puts the person into shock. Allergies to food, insect stings, medications and latex are most frequently associated with anaphylaxis.
A second anaphylactic reaction, known as a biphasic reaction, can happen as endless as 12 hours after the initial reaction.
Call and get to the nearest emergency facility at the first sign of anaphylaxis, even if you own already istered epinephrine, the drug used to treat severe allergic reactions.
Just because an allergic person has never had an anaphylactic reaction in the past to an offending allergen, doesn’t mean that one won’t happen in the future. If you own had an anaphylactic reaction in the past, you are at risk of future reactions.
AEFI cluster investigations
A cluster of AEFIs isdefined as two or more cases of the same adverse event related in time, put or the vaccine istrated. Apart from checking on these three factors (e.g.
checking vaccine batch), the investigator should check for AEFIs occurring in similar age groups and populations with genetic predisposition or disease.
Cluster investigation begins by establishing the case definition and identifying every cases that meet the case definition. The immunization programme manager should then take two actions.
- Immunization practices and the associated health workers’ practices.
- Identify the immunization history of the cluster cases including details of when, where and which vaccines were given, by collecting and recording:
- Programme-related data (storage and handling, etc.),
- Identify any common exposures among the cases, for example:
- All data on vaccine(s) used (name, lot number, etc.),
- Detailed data on each patient,
- Data on other people in the area (also non-exposed).
Your immune system is responsible for defending the body against bacteria and viruses.
In some cases, your immune system will defend against substances that typically don’t pose a threat to the human body. These substances are known as allergens, and when your body reacts to them, it causes an allergic reaction.
You can inhale, eat, and touch allergens that cause a reaction. Doctors can also use allergens to diagnose allergies and can even inject them into your body as a form of treatment.
The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) reports that as numerous as 50 million people in the United States suffer from some type of allergic disease.