What is the best medicine to take for pet allergies

What is the best medicine to take for pet allergies

Immunotherapy injections

Some allergy sufferers discover relief in allergen immunotherapy, a periodic injection therapy designed to suppress the body’s natural immune responses to the cat allergens.[9][10] In its early stages, AIT utilized cat dander extract, which consists of microscopic dry skin flakes of cats, but later resorted to Fel d 1 due to issues of standardization. One way researchers use Fel 1 d in immunotherapy is through the alteration of its chemical structure. Disulfide bonds between Fel d 1 chains were broken to reduce the binding between the allergen and immunoglobulin E (IgE), inhibiting an allergic response.[1]

Medications

Cat allergies can often be controlled with over the counter or prescription medications.

Antihistamines and decongestants may provide allergy relief.[8]

Cat bathing

Regularly bathing the cat may remove significant amounts of allergens from the fur.[11] After bathing, the levels of Fel d 1 on cat skin and fur return within two days of bathing. In addition, amounts of Fel d 1 in the surrounding air return after a 24 hour period of bathing the cat.[1] Feeding the cat a high quality diet with plenty of omega-3 fatty acids will assist hold the jacket healthy and minimize dander.[6]

Lower exposure

Allergens that are airborne survive for months or even years by themselves, hence removing anything that can trap and hold the allergens (carpet, rugs, pillows) and cleaning regularly and thoroughly with HEPA filters and electrostatic air purifier systems reduces risk.

Frequent hand washing, especially after handling the cat, and washing hands prior to touching eyes, nose, or mouth, and limiting the cat’s access to certain rooms, such as the bedroom or other rooms where much time is spent, may also reduce allergic reactions.

Development of other treatments

Development of several human vaccines own been abandoned, including Allervax[12] and Cat-SPIRE.[13] As of 2019, the Swiss company HypoPet AG is developing a vaccine it hopes could be istered to cats to reduce the emission of Fel d 1 proteins.[14]


Body’s response to the allergen

As the allergen enters through the nose or mouth, antigen cells analyze the allergen and present antigenic peptides to helper T cells.[2] The helper T cells acquire a type 2 phenotype (Th2) and produce IgE due the presence of specific cytokines.

If Th2 is expressed too much, the symptoms of cat allergies appear.

What is the best medicine to take for pet allergies

Inhaled cat allergens will activate mast cells, causing coughing, increased mucous production, and airway constriction.



One of the most common medical complaints that we see in our office is dogs with skin infections, “hot spots”, or allergic dermatitis, also known as atopic (atopy) dermatitis.

Unlike people who react to allergens most commonly with nasal symptoms and/or hives, dogs react with skin and/or gastrointestinal problems. This is because there are a higher proportion of mast cells, which release histamines and other vasoactive substances in the face of an allergic challenge, in the skin of dogs.

These problems may range from poor jacket texture or hair length, to itching and chewing, to boiling spots and self-mutilation, gastrointestinal pain and discomfort, diarrhea, and flatulence. Allergies may also frolic a part in chronic ear infections. The most common causes of canine allergic dermatitis are flea allergy, food allergy, inhalant or contact allergy, and allergy to the normal bacterial flora and yeast organisms of the skin. To make matters more hard to diagnose and treat, thyroid disease may add to the problem as well.

Canine atopic dermatitis (allergic dermatitis, canine atopy) is an inherited predisposition to develop allergic symptoms following repeated exposure to some otherwise harmless substance, an “allergen”.

Most dogs start to show their allergic signs between 1 and 3 years of age. Due to the hereditary nature of the disease, several breeds, including Golden Retrievers, most terriers, Irish Setters, Lhasa Apsos, Dalmatians, Bulldogs, and Ancient English Sheep dogs are more commonly atopic, but numerous dogs, including mixed breed dogs can own atopic dermatitis. Atopic animals will generally rub, lick, chew, bite, or scratch at their feet, flanks, ears, armpits, or groin, causing patchy or inconsistent hair loss and reddening and thickening of the skin.

The skin itself may be dry and crusty or oily depending upon the dog. Dogs may also rub their face on the carpet; ear flaps may become red and boiling. Because the wax-producing glands of the ear overproduce as a response to the allergy, they get bacterial and yeast (Malassezia ) infections of the ear.

In order to overcome these frustrating symptoms, your veterinarian’s approach needs to be thorough and systematic. Shortcuts generally will not produce results and only add to owner frustration and canine discomfort.

Inhalant and Contact Allergies
Substances that can cause an allergic reaction in dogs are much the same as those that cause reactions in people including the pollens of grasses, trees and weeds, dust mites, and molds.

A clue to diagnosing these allergies is to glance at the timing of the reaction. Does it happen year round? This may be mold or dust. If the reaction is seasonal, pollens may be the culprit.

Food Allergies
Numerous people don’t suspect food allergies as the cause of their dog’s itching because their pet has been fed the same food every its life and has just recently started having symptoms. However, animals can develop allergies to a substance over time, so this fact does not law out food allergies. Another common misconception is that dogs are only sensitive to poor quality food. If the dog is allergic to an ingredient, it doesn’t matter whether it is in premium food or the most inexpensive brand on the market.

One advantage to premium foods is that some avoid common fillers that are often implicated in allergic reactions.

Flea Allergies
This type of reaction generally is not to the flea itself, but rather to proteins in its saliva. Interestingly enough, the dogs most prone to this problem are not dogs who are constantly flea ridden, but those who are exposed only occasionally! A single bite can cause a reaction for five to seven days, so you don’t need a lot of fleas to own a miserable dog.

Staphylococcus Hypersensitivity
Bacterial hypersensitivity occurs when a dog’s immune system overreacts to the normal Staphylococcus (Staph) bacteria on its skin.

It appears that bacterial hypersensitivity in the dog is more likely to happen if other conditions such as hypothyroidism, inhalant allergy, and/or flea allergy are concurrently present. Bacterial hypersensitivity is diagnosed through bacterial culture and examination of a biopsy sample. Microscopically, there are certain unique changes in the blood vessels of the skin in bacterial hypersensitivity.

Treatment

Medicated Baths
Numerous medicated shampoos own compounds in them that are aimed at soothing injured skin and calming inflammation. In addition, frequent bathing (weekly to every other week) of the dog can remove allergens from the hair jacket, which may contribute to skin allergy flare-ups.

The medicated baths we recommend are those that actually contain antimicrobial and antifungal agents as well as ingredients that permit the skin to be bathed on a more frequent basis without drying it out. Application of a rinse afterwards also helps to prevent drying out of the skin and hair coat.

Antihistamines
Antihistamines can be used with excellent safety in dogs. About one third of owners report success with antihistamines. These medications tend to own a variable effect between dogs. For some allergic dogs, antihistamines work extremely well in controlling symptoms of allergic skin disease.

For other dogs, extremely little effect is seen. Therefore, a minimum of three diverse types of antihistamines should be tried before owners give up on this therapy. Examples of antihistamines commonly used for dogs include Benadryl, Chlortrimeton, Atarax, Claritin, Zyrtec, and Clemastine. However, antihistamines are considered to be worth trying in most cases since the side effects associated with antihistamines is low, and they are typically inexpensive medications.

Antibiotics and Antifungal Medications
Antibiotics are frequently needed to treat secondary skin infections.

Anti-fungal medications are frequently needed to treat secondary yeast infections.

Flea Control
For dogs with this problem, a strict flea control regime must be maintained. The best flea control options include the use of products such as Advantage, Revolution, Frontline, Comfortis, and Sentinel.

Supplements
The Omega-3 and Omega-6 essential fatty acid supplements work by improving the overall health of the skin.

These fatty acids are natural anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. They reportedly are helpful in 20% of allergic dogs. My own experience puts this figure a little higher. They are certainly worth a attempt because they are not harmful and own virtually no side effects. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in fish oils and omega-6 fatty acids are derived from plants containing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). These supplements are diverse from those sold to produce a glossy jacket. Products that contain both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids include Allergen Caps and Halo.

Hypoallergenic Diets
Allergies develop through exposure, so most hypoallergenic diets incorporate proteins and carbohydrates that your dog has never had before.

As mentioned previously, the quickest and best way to determine which foods your dog may or may not be allergic to is through diagnostic allergy testing. As dairy, beef, and wheat are responsible for 80% of food allergies in dogs, these items should be avoided. Novel protein sources used in hypoallergenic diets include venison, egg, duck, kangaroo, and types of fish not generally found in pet food. Carbohydrate sources include potatoes, peas, yams, sweet potatoes, and canned pumpkin.

Hydrolyzed protein diets are diets in which the protein source has been synthetically reduced to little fragments.

The theory behind feeding a hydrolyzed protein source is that the proteins in the food should be little enough that the allergic dog’s immune system will not recognize the protein fragments and will not mount an immune response resulting in an allergy.

Most pets with food allergies reply well when switched to a store-bought hypoallergenic diet, but occasionally an animal suffers from such extreme allergies that a homemade diet is the only option. In this case, the diet should be customized with the aid of a veterinarian.

Corticosteroids and Immunosuppressive Agents
Cortisone products such as prednisone, prednisolone, and dexamethasone reduce itching by reducing inflammation.

These medications are not without side effects, so they need to be used judiciously in treating skin allergies. Steroids should be considered only when the allergy season is short, the quantity of drug required is little, or to relieve a dog in extreme discomfort. Side effects can include increased thirst and appetite, increased need to urinate, and behavioral changes. Long-term use can result in diabetes and decreased resistance to infection. In some dogs, endless term, low-dose alternate day therapy is the only management protocol that successfully controls the atopic pet.

This protocol should be used only as a final resort after every other methods own been exhausted to avoid the potential long-term complications of the medication.

Cyclosporine (Atopica) is a medication, which seems to be fairly effective at reducing the inflammation associated with skin allergies and calming the immune system of the affected dog.

What is the best medicine to take for pet allergies

However, the pricing of cyclosporine may be prohibitive for larger breed dogs.

Immunotherapy (Hypo-sensitization)
Allergy shots are extremely safe, and numerous people own grand success with them; however, they are extremely slow to work. It may be six to twelve months before improvement is seen. Once the allergens for the dog are identified, an appropriate immunotherapy is manufactured for that specific dog, and treatment can start. After the offending antigens are identified, then a mixture of these antigens can be formulated into a hyposensitizing injection. Depending on the type of agents used, these injections will be given over a period of weeks to months until the dog or cat develops immunity to the agents.

After initial protection, an occasional booster may own to be given.

Environmental Control
If you know which substances your dog is allergic to, avoidance is the best method of control. Even if you are desensitizing the dog with allergy shots, it is best to avoid the allergen altogether. Molds can be reduced by using a dehumidifier or placing activated charcoal on top of the exposed dirt in your home plants. Dusts and pollens are best controlled by using an air cleaner with a HEPA filter. Air conditioning can also reduce circulating amounts of airborne allergens because windows are then kept closed.

Thyroid Medication
Healthy skin and a normal hair jacket are the results of numerous factors, both external and internal.

There are several glands in the body responsible for the production of hormones that are vital for the regulation of other body functions as well as a normal skin surface and hair jacket. Hypothyroidism may result in poor skin and hair jacket, including hair loss or abnormal hair turnover, dull or brittle hair, altered pigmentation, and oily or dry skin. A blood test is a simplest and most direct way to tell if your dog is hypothyroid. Thyroid testing may include every or part of the following:

Baseline T4 Test or Entire T4 (TT4): This is the most common test.

Dogs with a failure of the thyroid gland will own a lowered level of the T4 hormone. However, there are other conditions that can cause the T4 to decrease, so if this test comes back positive for hypothyroidism your vet should recommend an additional blood test, either the T3 Test or the Baseline TSH test.

Baseline TSH Test: Measures the level of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone. In combination with the T4 or T3 test, it provides a more finish picture of the hormonal activity of your dog’s thyroid gland.

Free T4 by RIA (radio immunoassay): The Free T4 test using RIA techniques does not appear to be more or less precise than the above TT4 test.

Free T4 by ED (equilibrium dialysis): This test may provide more precise data on the level of T4 hormone in your dog’s bloodstream.

Baseline T3 Test: In combination with the T4 or TSH test, these two blood tests can give a clearer picture of the hormone levels found in the bloodstream.

This test is not dependable when used alone. The T3 Test should always be given in combination with one of the other blood tests.

TSH Response Test: In this test, the veterinarian takes an initial measurement of the thyroid hormones in your dog’s bloodstream and then injects Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) into the vein. After 6 hours, a blood sample is drawn and the level of T4 is checked. If your dog has hypothyroidism, the level of T4 will not increase even after the TSH is injected.

What is the best medicine to take for pet allergies

This is an expensive test and is being used less often due to decreased production by the manufacturers.

Hypothyroidism is treated with a daily dose of synthetic thyroid hormone called thyroxine (levothyroxine). Blood samples will need to be drawn periodically to assess the effectiveness of the dosage and make any adjustments necessary.

Successful management of the atopic, allergic dog is sometimes complicated and frustrating because multi-modal management is necessary in the majority of cases to control the allergic flare-ups.

Proper diagnosis by a veterinarian and owner compliance and follow up care is essential to maximize the chances of curing or at least controlling the severely affected allergy patient.



Sarcoptic Mange: Save Your Dog’s Skin from Scabies

It sounds troubling, love something out of a gritty movie about the bad part of town: a dog walks by with mange, looking ragged, uncared-for and mad. Well, you’d be mad and ragged too if tiny mites caused you to lose your hair and itch severely.

Thankfully, mange is not as scary as you may own heard, and it’s easily treatable.

What is mange on dogs?

The illness we call “mange” on dogs is actually sarcoptic mange, also known as canine scabies. It’s not an illness but rather an infestation of microscopic mites – the parasite known as Sarcoptes scaeibi. While cats, foxes and even humans can get mange, these parasites particularly prefer dogs. Once on a host dog, the mites cause several skin problems, most notably hair loss and severe itching.

What are the symptoms of sarcoptic mange?

The most obvious symptoms of sarcoptic mange is severe itching and hair loss.

The mites prefer to live in areas with less hair, so itching is often concentrated on the dog’s elbows, ears, chest, armpits and stomach. As the infestation worsens, the itching and hair loss spreads. The bites can also cause red pustules with yellow crusts.

If left untreated, the dog’s skin will start showing signs of severe irritation, such as redness and sores due to bacterial infections. In fact, some doctors believe the irritation dogs feel is actually an allergic reaction to the mites’ bites.

How is sarcoptic mange diagnosed on dogs?

It can be challenging for you or your veterinarian to diagnose sarcoptic mange.

When mange is suspected, your vet will scrape the dog’s skin to glance for the scabies under a microscope. Unfortunately, the mites only show up in about 20 percent of skin scrapings – so while a positive identification surely means the mites are present, a negative scraping does not really prove anything. Therefore, the most common way to diagnose a dog for mange is to discuss the dog’s history, note if allergy treatments own been effective or failed, and to start treatment for scabies.

If the dog improves with treatment, then a diagnosis of scabies may be confirmed.

How do you treat canine scabies?

There are a few approaches to treating sarcoptic mange in dogs.

  • Fatigue
  • Nasal stuffiness or congestion
  • Tenderness of the face
  • Discolored nasal discharge (greenish in color)
  • Frontal headaches
  • Pain in the teeth
  • Bad breath
  • Fever
  • Liquid ivermectin: This is a stronger version of the heartworm prevention medicine found in Heartguard.

    We will occasionally use this treatment, but it’s rarely a first choice. It should not be used for Collies, Shetland sheep dogs, or other herding breeds.

  • Swelling of the nasal tissues
  • Redness
  • Medicinal baths: Our preferred and the most effective treatment is to bath the dog regularly in chemical shampoos. The dog will generally own his hair clipped short, then is dipped once/week for 3-4 weeks.

    Unfortunately, the dip has a extremely foul smell and can be toxic to humans and vulnerable dogs, so grand care is needed in dipping dogs (and in treating their facial areas). When done correctly, the dips are extremely effectively.

  • Discolored (greenish) nasal discharge
  • Coughing
  • Heartworm and flea prevention: Some vets will prescribe flea-prevention and heartworm-prevention medications love Revolution or Frontline to treat mange, but at the Animal Clinic of Woodruff, we own not seen these treatments to be effective in treating scabies.

    However, one medicine we’ve had success with at the Clinic is Bravecto. It’s a flea and tick prevention that is also effective at killing the scabies mite. We typically combine this medication with our bath protocol, but in mild cases, it may be used alone.

  • Tenderness of the face (particularly under the eyes or at the bridge of the nose)
  • Postnasal drip
  • Bad Breath

Along with treating the dog, the dog’s bedding and other areas can be treated with an insecticide. And since scabies is spread among dogs, other dogs in the home should be treated.

Finally, due to the trauma on the dog’s skin, your vet will likely also need to prescribe medications to treat bacterial skin infections and/or yeast infections, and will also propose products to relieve itchy, sore skin.

Can humans get mange?

There are human versions of scabies, but that is a diverse animal than Sarcoptes scaeibi, which lives on dogs.

That said, humans can contract scabies from pets, and might experience itching or rashes, especially on the wrists or hands. If you see a rash or are itchy while your dog has scabies, see your doctor immediately.

How can I prevent mange and scabies in dogs?

There’s no way to fully protect your dog, as scabies is spread by contact with other dogs. Take care when your dog is surrounded by lots of other dogs. You should hold your dog away from foxes and places where foxes go, as they can carry scabies that will carry to dogs.

If you suspect your dog may own mange, contact Animal Clinic of Woodruff today to make an appointment with our veterinarians in Woodruff.

Posted in Pet Health Issues

Common symptoms of sinus infection include:

  1. Frontal headaches
  2. Coughing
  3. Fever
  4. Tenderness of the face (particularly under the eyes or at the bridge of the nose)
  5. Discolored nasal discharge (greenish in color)
  6. Pain in the teeth
  7. Fatigue
  8. Postnasal drip
  9. Nasal stuffiness or congestion
  10. Bad breath

Sinus infection (sinusitis) is often confused with rhinitis, a medical term used to describe the symptoms that accompany nasal inflammation and irritation.

Rhinitis only involves the nasal passages. It could be caused by a freezing or allergies.

Allergies can frolic an significant role in chronic (long-lasting) or seasonal rhinitis episodes. Nasal and sinus passages become swollen, congested, and inflamed in an attempt to flush out offending inhaled particles that trigger allergies. Pollen are seasonal allergens. Molds, dust mites and pet dander can cause symptoms year-round.

Asthma also has been linked to chronic sinus infections. Some people with a chronic nasal inflammation and irritation and/or asthma can develop a type of chronic sinusitis that is not caused by infection.

Appropriate treatment of sinus infection often improves asthma symptoms.

Diagnosis

Allergy testing is the best diagnostic tool and the best road to treatment for dogs that are suffering from moderate and severe allergies. There are several diverse testing methods available. The most common is a blood test that checks for antigen induced antibodies in the dog’s blood. Intradermal skin testing may also be performed. In this method of testing, a little quantity of antigen is injected into a shaved portion of the dog’s skin. This is done in a specific pattern and order so that if the dog shows a little raised reaction, the offending antigen can be identified.

After a period of time (hours), the shaved area is examined to detect which antigens, if any, created a reaction. Allergy testing is performed to develop a specific therapy for the allergic animal.

How is sinus infection diagnosed?

Diagnosis depends on symptoms and requires an examination of the throat, nose and sinuses. Your allergist will glance for:

  1. Tenderness of the face
  2. Swelling of the nasal tissues
  3. Discolored (greenish) nasal discharge
  4. Redness
  5. Bad Breath

If your sinus infection lasts longer than eight weeks, or if standard antibiotic treatment is not working, a sinus CT scan may assist your allergist diagnose the problem.

Your allergist may examine your nose or sinus openings. The exam uses a endless, thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera and a light at one finish that is inserted through the nose. It is not painful. Your allergist may give you a light anesthetic nasal spray to make you more comfortable.

Mucus cultures: If your sinus infection is chronic or has not improved after several rounds of antibiotics, a mucus culture may assist to determine what is causing the infection.

Most mucus samples are taken from the nose. However, it is sometimes necessary to get mucus (or pus) directly from the sinuses.

Knowing what helpful of bacteria is causing the infection can lead to more effective antibiotic therapy. A fungus could also cause your sinus infection. Confirming the presence of fungus is significant. Fungal sinus infection needs to be treated with antifungal agents, rather than antibiotics.

In addition, some forms of fungal sinus infection – allergic fungal sinus infection, for example – do not reply to antifungal agents and often require the use of oral steroids.

Your allergist may consider ordering a sinus CT. This test can assist to define the extent of the infection. Your allergist may also send you to a specialist in allergy and immunology. The specialist will check for underlying factors such as allergies, asthma, structural defects, or a weakness of the immune system.

Biopsies: A harm of more serious types of fungal sinus infection is that the fungus could penetrate into nearby bone.

Only a bone biopsy can determine if this has happened. Biopsies involving sinus tissue are taken with flexible instruments inserted through the nose.

Biopsies of the sinus tissue are also used to test for immotile cilia syndrome, a rare disorder that can cause people to suffer from recurrent infections, including chronic sinus infection, bronchitis and pneumonia.

Allergies to cats are one of the most common allergies among individuals.

What is the best medicine to take for pet allergies

Among the eight known cat allergens, the most prominent allergen is secretoglobinFel d 1, and it is produced in the anal glands, salivary glands, and, mainly, in sebaceous glands of cats, and is ubiquitous in the United States, even in households without cats.[1] Allergic symptoms associated with cats include coughing, wheezing, chest tightening, itching, nasal congestion, rash, watering eyes, sneezing, chapped lips, and similar symptoms. In worst case scenarios, allergies to cats can develop into more life-threatening conditions such as rhinitis and mild to severe forms of asthma.[1] Despite these symptoms, there are numerous types of solutions to mitigate the allergic effects of cats, including medications, vaccines, and home remedies.

Hypoallergenic cats are another solution for individuals who desire to pets without the allergic consequences. Furthermore, prospective pet owners can reduce allergic reactions by selecting cats of a specific gender or color, which are associated with a lower production of allergens.

Along with treating the dog, the dog’s bedding and other areas can be treated with an insecticide. And since scabies is spread among dogs, other dogs in the home should be treated.

Finally, due to the trauma on the dog’s skin, your vet will likely also need to prescribe medications to treat bacterial skin infections and/or yeast infections, and will also propose products to relieve itchy, sore skin.

Can humans get mange?

There are human versions of scabies, but that is a diverse animal than Sarcoptes scaeibi, which lives on dogs.

That said, humans can contract scabies from pets, and might experience itching or rashes, especially on the wrists or hands. If you see a rash or are itchy while your dog has scabies, see your doctor immediately.

How can I prevent mange and scabies in dogs?

There’s no way to fully protect your dog, as scabies is spread by contact with other dogs. Take care when your dog is surrounded by lots of other dogs.

You should hold your dog away from foxes and places where foxes go, as they can carry scabies that will carry to dogs.

If you suspect your dog may own mange, contact Animal Clinic of Woodruff today to make an appointment with our veterinarians in Woodruff.

Posted in Pet Health Issues

Common symptoms of sinus infection include:

  1. Frontal headaches
  2. Coughing
  3. Fever
  4. Tenderness of the face (particularly under the eyes or at the bridge of the nose)
  5. Discolored nasal discharge (greenish in color)
  6. Pain in the teeth
  7. Fatigue
  8. Postnasal drip
  9. Nasal stuffiness or congestion
  10. Bad breath

Sinus infection (sinusitis) is often confused with rhinitis, a medical term used to describe the symptoms that accompany nasal inflammation and irritation.

Rhinitis only involves the nasal passages. It could be caused by a freezing or allergies.

Allergies can frolic an significant role in chronic (long-lasting) or seasonal rhinitis episodes. Nasal and sinus passages become swollen, congested, and inflamed in an attempt to flush out offending inhaled particles that trigger allergies. Pollen are seasonal allergens. Molds, dust mites and pet dander can cause symptoms year-round.

Asthma also has been linked to chronic sinus infections. Some people with a chronic nasal inflammation and irritation and/or asthma can develop a type of chronic sinusitis that is not caused by infection.

Appropriate treatment of sinus infection often improves asthma symptoms.

Diagnosis

Allergy testing is the best diagnostic tool and the best road to treatment for dogs that are suffering from moderate and severe allergies. There are several diverse testing methods available. The most common is a blood test that checks for antigen induced antibodies in the dog’s blood. Intradermal skin testing may also be performed. In this method of testing, a little quantity of antigen is injected into a shaved portion of the dog’s skin. This is done in a specific pattern and order so that if the dog shows a little raised reaction, the offending antigen can be identified.

After a period of time (hours), the shaved area is examined to detect which antigens, if any, created a reaction. Allergy testing is performed to develop a specific therapy for the allergic animal.

How is sinus infection diagnosed?

Diagnosis depends on symptoms and requires an examination of the throat, nose and sinuses. Your allergist will glance for:

  1. Tenderness of the face
  2. Swelling of the nasal tissues
  3. Discolored (greenish) nasal discharge
  4. Redness
  5. Bad Breath

If your sinus infection lasts longer than eight weeks, or if standard antibiotic treatment is not working, a sinus CT scan may assist your allergist diagnose the problem.

Your allergist may examine your nose or sinus openings. The exam uses a endless, thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera and a light at one finish that is inserted through the nose. It is not painful. Your allergist may give you a light anesthetic nasal spray to make you more comfortable.

Mucus cultures: If your sinus infection is chronic or has not improved after several rounds of antibiotics, a mucus culture may assist to determine what is causing the infection. Most mucus samples are taken from the nose. However, it is sometimes necessary to get mucus (or pus) directly from the sinuses.

Knowing what helpful of bacteria is causing the infection can lead to more effective antibiotic therapy.

A fungus could also cause your sinus infection. Confirming the presence of fungus is significant. Fungal sinus infection needs to be treated with antifungal agents, rather than antibiotics. In addition, some forms of fungal sinus infection – allergic fungal sinus infection, for example – do not reply to antifungal agents and often require the use of oral steroids.

Your allergist may consider ordering a sinus CT. This test can assist to define the extent of the infection. Your allergist may also send you to a specialist in allergy and immunology.

The specialist will check for underlying factors such as allergies, asthma, structural defects, or a weakness of the immune system.

Biopsies: A harm of more serious types of fungal sinus infection is that the fungus could penetrate into nearby bone. Only a bone biopsy can determine if this has happened. Biopsies involving sinus tissue are taken with flexible instruments inserted through the nose.

Biopsies of the sinus tissue are also used to test for immotile cilia syndrome, a rare disorder that can cause people to suffer from recurrent infections, including chronic sinus infection, bronchitis and pneumonia.

Allergies to cats are one of the most common allergies among individuals.

Among the eight known cat allergens, the most prominent allergen is secretoglobinFel d 1, and it is produced in the anal glands, salivary glands, and, mainly, in sebaceous glands of cats, and is ubiquitous in the United States, even in households without cats.[1] Allergic symptoms associated with cats include coughing, wheezing, chest tightening, itching, nasal congestion, rash, watering eyes, sneezing, chapped lips, and similar symptoms.

In worst case scenarios, allergies to cats can develop into more life-threatening conditions such as rhinitis and mild to severe forms of asthma.[1] Despite these symptoms, there are numerous types of solutions to mitigate the allergic effects of cats, including medications, vaccines, and home remedies. Hypoallergenic cats are another solution for individuals who desire to pets without the allergic consequences. Furthermore, prospective pet owners can reduce allergic reactions by selecting cats of a specific gender or color, which are associated with a lower production of allergens.


Hypoallergenic cats

A hypoallergenic cat is a cat that is less likely to provoke an allergic reaction in humans. Although the topic is controversial, owners’ experience and recent clinical studies propose that Siberian cats, Devon Rex and Cornish Rex cats, Abyssinian cats, Balinese cats, and several other breeds,[citation needed] especially females, are likely to own low levels of Fel d 1, the main allergenic protein.[15]

From among the above cats noted, the most favorite cat breeds to be renowned for their hypoallergenic quality are the Siberian and Balinese.

These cats produce much fewer protein allergens in comparison to regular domestic household cats or other cat breeds. Cats that own some Balinese ancestry might produce lower amounts protein allergens.[citation needed] Cat breeds that often own some Balinese lineage include the Oriental shorthair, Oriental longhair, and some Siamese cats.

The common theory among these two hypoallergenic medium- to long-haired cat breeds is that their long-haired gene is associated with producing reduced amounts of allergens.

This may be the case as the Balinese cat, a medium to long-haired cat breed (also referred to as the Long-haired Siamese cat) is regarded as hypoallergenic, whereas the Siamese cat, a short-haired breed, is not. Some Siamese cats might possess hypoallergenic qualities if they own Balinese ancestry. This might provide some evidence that the long-haired genes or traits within this cat breed own resulted in a cat that can genetically produce less amounts of the cat allergens.[citation needed]

In 2006, the Allerca company announced the successful breeding of a line of hypoallergenic cats.

However, no peer-reviewed studies own been done to confirm their claims and numerous scientists and consumers are skeptical of the company’s assertions.[16] The company has announced that on January 1, 2010 they will cease their breeding activities.[17]

Another company, Felix Pets, also claims to be developing a breed of hypoallergenic cat.[18]


Cat allergens

Eight cat allergens own been recognized by the World Health Organization/International Union of Immunological Societies (WHO/IUIS) Allergen Nomenclature Sub‐Committee. Fel d 1 is the most prominent cat allergen, accounting for 96% of human cat allergies.[2] The remaining cat allergens are Fel d 2-8, with Fel d 4, an urinary protein, occurring the most in humans among the other seven allergens.

Every cats produce Fel d 1 including hypoallergenic cats.

What is the best medicine to take for pet allergies

The main way these allergens are spread is through a cat’s saliva or dander, which gets stuck on clothing. A study found that 63% of people allergic to cats own antibodies against Fel d 4.[3]

Fel d 1

Fel d 1 is the most dominant cat allergen. It is part of the secretoglobulin family, which are proteins found only in mammals. Fel d 1 is primarily secreted through the sebaceous glands and can be found on the skin and fur of a cat.

It is less commonly secreted through the salivary gland, lacrimal glands, skin and anal glands.[4]

Fel d 4 and Fel d 7

Fel d 4 and Fel d 7 are cat lipocalins. Fel d 4 and Fel d 7 are one of the most common cat allergens after Fel d 1. Fel d 4 is primarily found in cats’ saliva and is associated with atopic dermatitis in children with cat allergies.[4]


Cat sex and color

Female cats produce a lower level of allergens than males, and neutered males produce a lower level of allergens than unneutered males.[19] In 2000, researchers at the Endless Island College Hospital found that cat owners with dark-colored cats were more likely to report allergy symptoms than those with light-colored cats.[20][21] A later study by the Wellington Asthma Research Group found that fur color had no effect on how much allergen a cat produced.[22][23]


Symptoms

Symptoms of an allergic reaction to cats range from mild to severe, and include swollen, red, itchy, and watery eyes; nasal congestion, itchy nose, sneezing, chronic sore throat or itchy throat, coughing, wheezing, asthma, hay fever,[5] hives or rash on the face or chest, or itchy skin.

If a cat has scratched, licked, or bitten someone who is allergic to cats, redness and sometimes even swelling of the affected area will happen. For those severely allergic, a reaction may resemble that of someone with a severe food allergy, and such reactions require emergency medical care.[6][7]


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