What is the best flea treatment for dogs with flea allergies

  • ^Krasnov, Boris R. (2008). Functional and Evolutionary Ecology of Fleas: A Model for Ecological Parasitology. Cambridge University Press. p. 194. ISBN .
  • ^Meyer, John R. (28 March 2016). «Siphonaptera». North Carolina State University. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  • ^«Flea Life Cycle: Eggs, Larvae, etc». Orkin.com. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  • ^Gillott, Cedric (2005).

    Entomology. Springer Science & Trade Media. p. 97. ISBN .

  • ^ abcHinkle, Nancy C.; Koehler, Philip G. (2008). Capinera, John L. (ed.). Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis Bouché (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Springer Netherlands. pp. 797–801. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6359-6_536. ISBN .
  • ^ abcdCrosby, J.T.

    What is the best flea treatment for dogs with flea allergies

    «What is the Life Cycle of the Flea?». Veterinary Parasites. About Home. Retrieved 4 November 2016.

  • ^Krasnov, Boris R. (2008).

    What is the best flea treatment for dogs with flea allergies

    Functional and Evolutionary Ecology of Fleas: A Model for Ecological Parasitology. Cambridge University Press.

    What is the best flea treatment for dogs with flea allergies

    pp. 64–67. ISBN .

  • ^«Order Siphonaptera – Fleas». BugGuide.Net. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  • ^ ab«How endless is the life span of a flea?». Everyday Mysteries: Enjoyment Science Facts from the Library of Congress. Loc.gov. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  • ^ abPiper, Ross (2007), Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals, Greenwood Press.
  • ^ ab«Wiley: The Insects: An Outline of Entomology, 5th Edition – Gullan, P.J.; Cranston, P.S.»www.wiley.com.

    Retrieved 11 November 2016.

  • ^ ab«Fleas leap from feet, not knees». Science News. 2 October 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  • ^ abKrasnov, Boris R. (2008). Functional and Evolutionary Ecology of Fleas: A Model for Ecological Parasitology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 44–54. ISBN .
  • ^ abFleas. Koehler, P.G.; Oi, F.M. Printed July 1993, revised February 2003. Provided by the University of Florida
  • ^Koehler, P.G.; Pereira, R.M.; Diclaro, J.W.

    «Fleas». Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 11 November 2016.

  • ^Shryock, J. (2006). «Time Spent by Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Larvae in Food Patches of Varying Quality». Environmental Entomology. 35 (2): 401–404. doi:10.1603/0046-225x-35.2.401.
  • ^Taylor, Sean D.; Cruz, Katharina Dittmar de la; Porter, Megan L.; Whiting, Michael F.

    (May 2005). «Characterization of the Long-Wavelength Opsin from Mecoptera and Siphonaptera: Does a Flea See?». Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (5): 1165–1174. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi110. ISSN 0737-4038. PMID 15703237.

  • ^ abcdBurrows, M. (2009). «How Fleas Jump». Journal of Experimental Biology. 212 (18): 2881–2883. doi:10.1242/jeb.022855. PMID 19717668.
  • ^Silverman, Jules; Appel, Arthur (March 1994). «Adult Cat Flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Excretion of Host Blood Proteins in Relation to Larval Nutrition»(PDF).

    Journal of Medical Entomology. 31 (2): 265–271. doi:10.1093/jmedent/31.2.265. Retrieved 18 July 2014.

  • ^ abc

Dog flea (from top) larva, egg, pupa and adult

1
00:00:00,000 —> 00:00:05,000
A titre de propriétaires d’un animal de compagnie, c’est notre devoir de protège notre animal contre le danger.

2
00:00:06,000 —> 00:00:11,000
Mais parfois, ce sont les plus petits risques, ceux qu’on néglige, qui s’avèrent les plus problématiques.

3
00:00:12,000 —> 00:00:16,000
Au Canada, les tiques et les puces représentent une source de préoccupation croissante.

4
00:00:17,000 —> 00:00:19,000
Elles sont devenues une menace importante pour nos animaux.

5
00:00:20,000 —> 00:00:23,000
Saviez-vous qu’une seule puce peut piquer jusqu’à 400 fois par jour?

6
00:00:24,000 —> 00:00:30,000
Et que le tiques peuvent transmettre des maladies potentiellement mortelles pour les animaux et les humains, comme la maladie de Lyme?

7
00:00:31,000 —> 00:00:36,000
Qui l’eut cru?

Ces minuscules parasites peuvent nous causer de gros problèmes!

8
00:00:37,000 —> 00:00:40,000
La bonne nouvelle, c’est qu’il est possible de protéger nos animaux de compagnie.

9
00:00:41,000 —> 00:00:46,000
En effet, on trouve chez le vétérinaire différents produits que l’on peut regrouper en deux catégories :

10
00:00:47,000 —> 00:00:50,000
Les produits a action générale, qui sont pris par voie orale.

11
00:00:51,000 —> 00:00:54,000
Et les produits a action non-générale, qui sont appliques directement sur la peau.

12
00:00:55,000 —> 00:01:01,000
Les produits a action générale, pris par voie orale, sont souvent offerts sous forme de comprimes a croquer.

13
00:01:02,000 —> 00:01:07,000
Ca semble intéressant, non?

Toutefois, c’est médicaments pénètrent dans la circulation sanguine de l’animal.

14
00:01:08,000 —> 00:01:16,000
Et donc, lorsqu’une puce ou une tique atterrit sur votre animal, elle DOIT absolument piquer et se nourrir de sang pour que le médicament puisse faire son effet.

15
00:01:17,000 —> 00:01:25,000
En fait, pour être tue, le parasite doit continuer a se nourrir jusqu’à ce qu’il ait ingéré suffisamment de médicament qui circule dans le sang de votre animal.

16
00:01:26,000 —> 00:01:31,000
Votre animal demeure donc vulnérable, puisque des maladies dangereuses peuvent être transmises par la piqure.

17
00:01:32,000 —> 00:01:37,000
Pour leur part, les produits topiques a action non générale agissent sur la peau de l’animal.

18
00:01:38,000 —> 00:01:48,000
Grace a ces produits, lorsque les puces ou les tiques entrant en contact avec la peau de votre animal, elles perdent toute coordination, ce qui laisse au médicaments le temps d’agir et de tuer les parasites.

19
00:01:49,000 —> 00:02:01,000
Ces produits réduisent considérablement la capacité des puces et des tiques a piquer votre animal, a s’y agripper et a se nourrir de son sang.

Ils diminuent donc également le risque de transmission de maladies.

20
00:02:02,000 —> 00:02:08,000
Avec les produits topiques a action non-générale, les puces et les tiques n’ont pas besoin de piquer pour être tuées.

21
00:02:09,000 —> 00:02:12,000
Vous aimez vos animaux et vous voulez les protéger.

22
00:02:13,000 —> 00:02:18,000
C’est donc logique d’utiliser des produits qui agissent au contact pour tuer les puces et les tiques.

23
00:02:19,000 —> 00:02:23,000
Demande a votre vétérinaire si la cure antipiqure convient a votre animal.

24
00:02:24,000 —> 00:02:34,000
Cure antipiqure.

Dog flea (from top) larva, egg, pupa and adult

1
00:00:00,000 —> 00:00:05,000
A titre de propriétaires d’un animal de compagnie, c’est notre devoir de protège notre animal contre le danger.

2
00:00:06,000 —> 00:00:11,000
Mais parfois, ce sont les plus petits risques, ceux qu’on néglige, qui s’avèrent les plus problématiques.

3
00:00:12,000 —> 00:00:16,000
Au Canada, les tiques et les puces représentent une source de préoccupation croissante.

4
00:00:17,000 —> 00:00:19,000
Elles sont devenues une menace importante pour nos animaux.

5
00:00:20,000 —> 00:00:23,000
Saviez-vous qu’une seule puce peut piquer jusqu’à 400 fois par jour?

6
00:00:24,000 —> 00:00:30,000
Et que le tiques peuvent transmettre des maladies potentiellement mortelles pour les animaux et les humains, comme la maladie de Lyme?

7
00:00:31,000 —> 00:00:36,000
Qui l’eut cru?

Ces minuscules parasites peuvent nous causer de gros problèmes!

8
00:00:37,000 —> 00:00:40,000
La bonne nouvelle, c’est qu’il est possible de protéger nos animaux de compagnie.

9
00:00:41,000 —> 00:00:46,000
En effet, on trouve chez le vétérinaire différents produits que l’on peut regrouper en deux catégories :

10
00:00:47,000 —> 00:00:50,000
Les produits a action générale, qui sont pris par voie orale.

11
00:00:51,000 —> 00:00:54,000
Et les produits a action non-générale, qui sont appliques directement sur la peau.

12
00:00:55,000 —> 00:01:01,000
Les produits a action générale, pris par voie orale, sont souvent offerts sous forme de comprimes a croquer.

13
00:01:02,000 —> 00:01:07,000
Ca semble intéressant, non?

Toutefois, c’est médicaments pénètrent dans la circulation sanguine de l’animal.

14
00:01:08,000 —> 00:01:16,000
Et donc, lorsqu’une puce ou une tique atterrit sur votre animal, elle DOIT absolument piquer et se nourrir de sang pour que le médicament puisse faire son effet.

15
00:01:17,000 —> 00:01:25,000
En fait, pour être tue, le parasite doit continuer a se nourrir jusqu’à ce qu’il ait ingéré suffisamment de médicament qui circule dans le sang de votre animal.

16
00:01:26,000 —> 00:01:31,000
Votre animal demeure donc vulnérable, puisque des maladies dangereuses peuvent être transmises par la piqure.

17
00:01:32,000 —> 00:01:37,000
Pour leur part, les produits topiques a action non générale agissent sur la peau de l’animal.

18
00:01:38,000 —> 00:01:48,000
Grace a ces produits, lorsque les puces ou les tiques entrant en contact avec la peau de votre animal, elles perdent toute coordination, ce qui laisse au médicaments le temps d’agir et de tuer les parasites.

19
00:01:49,000 —> 00:02:01,000
Ces produits réduisent considérablement la capacité des puces et des tiques a piquer votre animal, a s’y agripper et a se nourrir de son sang.

Ils diminuent donc également le risque de transmission de maladies.

20
00:02:02,000 —> 00:02:08,000
Avec les produits topiques a action non-générale, les puces et les tiques n’ont pas besoin de piquer pour être tuées.

21
00:02:09,000 —> 00:02:12,000
Vous aimez vos animaux et vous voulez les protéger.

22
00:02:13,000 —> 00:02:18,000
C’est donc logique d’utiliser des produits qui agissent au contact pour tuer les puces et les tiques.

23
00:02:19,000 —> 00:02:23,000
Demande a votre vétérinaire si la cure antipiqure convient a votre animal.

24
00:02:24,000 —> 00:02:34,000
Cure antipiqure.


Morphology and behavior

Fleas are wingless insects, 1/16 to 1/8-inch (1.5 to 3.3 mm) endless, that are agile, generally dark colored (for example, the reddish-brown of the cat flea), with a proboscis, or stylet, adapted to feeding by piercing the skin and sucking their host’s blood through their epipharynx.

Flea legs finish in strong claws that are adapted to grasp a host.[1]

Unlike other insects, fleas do not possess compound eyes but instead only own simple eyespots with a single biconvex lens; some species lack eyes altogether.[2] Their bodies are laterally compressed, permitting simple movement through the hairs or feathers on the host’s body (or in the case of humans, under clothing). The flea body is covered with hard plates called sclerites.[1] These sclerites are covered with numerous hairs and short spines directed backward, which also help its movements on the host.

The tough body is capable to withstand grand pressure, likely an adaptation to survive attempts to eliminate them by scratching.[3]

Fleas lay tiny, white, oval eggs. The larvae are little and pale, own bristles covering their worm-like bodies, lack eyes, and own mouth parts adapted to chewing. The larvae feed on organic matter, especially the feces of mature fleas, which contain dried blood. Adults feed only on unused blood.[4]

Jumping

Their legs are endless, the hind pair well adapted for jumping; a flea can jump vertically up to 7 in (18 cm) and horizontally up to 13 in (33 cm),[5] making the flea one of the best jumpers of every known animals (relative to body size), second only to the froghopper.

The flea jump is so rapid and forceful that it exceeds the capabilities of muscle, and instead of relying on direct muscle power, fleas store muscle energy in a pad of the elastic protein named resilin before releasing it rapidly (like a human using a bow and arrow).[6] Immediately before the jump, muscles contract and deform the resilin pad, slowly storing energy which can then be released extremely rapidly to power leg extension for propulsion.[7] To prevent premature release of energy or motions of the leg, the flea employs a «catch mechanism».[7] Early in the jump, the tendon of the primary jumping muscle passes slightly behind the coxa-trochanter joint, generating a torque which holds the joint closed with the leg shut to the body.[7] To trigger jumping, another muscle pulls the tendon forward until it passes the joint axis, generating the opposite torque to extend the leg and power the jump by release of stored energy.[7] The actual take off has been shown by high-speed video to be from the tibiae and tarsi rather than from the trochantera (knees).[6]


Taxonomy and phylogeny

Between 1735 and 1758, the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus first classified insects, doing so on the basis of their wing structure.

One of the seven orders into which he divided them was «Aptera», meaning wingless, a group in which as well as fleas, he included spiders, woodlice and myriapods. It wasn’t until 1810 that the French zoologist Pierre André Latreille reclassified the insects on the basis of their mouthparts as well as their wings, splitting Aptera into Thysanura (silverfish), Anoplura (sucking lice) and Siphonaptera (fleas), at the same time separating off the arachnids and crustaceans into their own subphyla.[18] The group’s name, Siphonaptera, is zoological Latin from the Greek siphon (a tube) and aptera (wingless).[19]

Fleas are related to the Diptera (true flies) and the Mecoptera (scorpion flies) as shown in the cladogram, based on a 2008 analysis of four loci (18S and 28S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome oxidase II, and elongation factor 1-alpha) for 128 flea taxa from around the world.

The Boreidae (snow scorpionflies) are the sister clade to the Siphonaptera.[20][21][22][23]

part of Endopterygota
Panorpida
Antliophora

Diptera

Mecoptera (scorpionflies, hangingflies, 400 spp.) (exc.

Boreidae)

Boreidae (snow scorpionflies, 30 spp.)

Siphonaptera (fleas, 2500 spp.)

Amphies.

Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, bees)

Amphies.

What is the best flea treatment for dogs with flea allergies

= Amphiesmenoptera

Fossils of wingless «pre-fleas» with siphonate (sucking) mouthparts from the middle Jurassic[24] to early Cretaceous own been found in northeastern China. These belonged to three proposed extinct families, the Pseudopulicidae, the Saurophthiridae, and the Tarwiniidae. The final common ancestor of modern Siphonaptera separated from the Mecoptera during the early Cretaceous. Most flea families formed after the finish of the Cretaceous (in the Paleogene and onwards). Fleas probably arose in the southern continental area of Gondwana, and migrated rapidly northwards from there. They most likely evolved with mammal hosts, only later moving to birds.[25]

Siphonaptera is a relatively little order of insects: members of the order undergo finish metamorphosis and are secondarily wingless (their ancestors had wings which modern forms own lost).

In 2005, Medvedev listed 2005 species in 242 genera, and despite subsequent descriptions of new species, bringing the entire up to around 2500 species,[20] this is the most finish database available. The order is divided into four infraorders and eighteen families.

What is the best flea treatment for dogs with flea allergies

Some families are exclusive to a single host group; these include the Malacopsyllidae (armadillos), Ischnopsyllidae (bats) and Chimaeropsyllidae (elephant shrews).[26]

Many of the known species are little studied. Some 600 species (a quarter of the total) are known from a single record from a single host. Over 94% of species are associated with mammalian hosts, and only about 3% of species can be considered to be specific parasites of birds. The fleas on birds are thought to own originated from mammalian fleas; at least sixteen separate groups of fleas switched to avian hosts during the evolutionary history of the Siphonaptera. Occurrences of fleas on reptiles is accidental, and fleas own been known to feed on the hemolymph (bloodlike body fluid) of ticks.[26]

Flea phylogeny was endless neglected, the discovery of homologies with the parts of other insects being made hard by their extreme specialization.

Whiting and colleagues prepared a detailed molecular phylogeny in 2008, with the basic structure shown in the cladogram. The Tungidae, including the harmful chigoe flea or jigger, is sister to the relax of the Siphonaptera.[20]


Relationship with humans

Flea circuses

Main article: Flea circus

Flea circuses provided entertainment to nineteenth century audiences.

What is the best flea treatment for dogs with flea allergies

These circuses, extremely favorite in Europe from 1830 onwards, featured fleas dressed as humans or towing miniature carts, chariots, rollers or cannon. These devices were originally made by watchmakers or jewellers to show off their skill at miniaturization. A ringmaster called a «professor» accompanied their performance with a rapid circus patter.[40][41]

The Rothschild Collection

The banker Charles Rothschild devoted much of his time to entomology, creating a large collection of fleas now in the Rothschild Collection at the Natural History Museum, London.

He discovered and named the plaguevector flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, also known as the oriental rat flea, in 1903.[46] Using what was probably the world’s most finish collection of fleas of about 260,000 specimens (representing some 73% of the 2,587 species and subspecies so far described), he described around 500 species and subspecies of Siphonaptera. He was followed in this interest by his daughter Miriam Rothschild, who helped to catalogue his huge collection of the insects in seven volumes.[47][48]

Carriers of plague

Oriental rat fleas, Xenopsylla cheopis, can carry the coccobacillusYersinia pestis. The infected fleas feed on rodent vectors of this bacterium, such as the black rat, Rattus rattus, and then infect human populations with the plague, as has happened repeatedly from ancient times, as in the Plague of Justinian in 541–542.[42] Outbreaks killed up to 200 million people across Europe between 1346 and 1671.[43] The Black Death pandemic between 1346 and 1353 likely killed over a third of the population of Europe.[44]

Because fleas carry plague, they own seen service as a biological weapon.

During World War II, the Japanese army dropped fleas infested with Y. pestis in China. The bubonic and septicaemic plagues are the most probable form of the plague that would spread as a result of a bioterrorism attack that used fleas as a vector.[45]

In literature and art

Fleas own appeared in poetry, literature, music and art; these include Robert Hooke’s drawing of a flea under the microscope in his pioneering book Micrographia published in 1665,[36] poems by Donne and Jonathan Swift, works of music by Giorgio Federico Ghedini and Modest Mussorgsky, a frolic by Georges Feydeau, a film by Charlie Chaplin, and paintings by artists such as Giuseppe Crespi, Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, and Georges de La Tour.[37]

John Donne’s eroticmetaphysical poem «The Flea», published in 1633 after his death, uses the conceit of a flea, which has sucked blood from the male speaker and his female lover, as an extended metaphor for their sexual relationship.

The speaker tries to convince a lady to sleep with him, arguing that if the mingling of their blood in the flea is innocent, then sex would be also.[38]

The comic poem Siphonaptera was written in 1915 by the mathematician Augustus De Morgan, It describes an infinite chain of parasitism made of ever larger and ever smaller fleas.[39]

Flea treatments

Main article: Flea treatments

Fleas own a significant economic impact. In America alone, approximately $2.8 billion is spent annually on flea-related veterinary bills and another $1.6 billion annually for flea treatment with pet groomers.

Four billion dollars is spent annually for prescription flea treatment and $348 million for flea pest control.[13]


Relationship with host

Fleas feed on a wide variety of warm-bloodedvertebrates including humans, dogs, cats, rabbits, squirrels, ferrets, rats, mice and birds. Fleas normally specialise in one host species or group of species, but can often feed but not reproduce on other species. Ceratophyllus gallinae affects poultry as well as wild birds.[27] As well as the degree of relatedness of a potential host to the flea’s original host, it has been shown that avian fleas that exploit a range of hosts, only parasitise species with low immune responses.

In general, host specificity decreases as the size of the host species decreases.

What is the best flea treatment for dogs with flea allergies

Another factor is the opportunities available to the flea to change host species; this is smaller in colonially nesting birds, where the flea may never encounter another species, than it is in solitary nesting birds. A large, long-lived host provides a stable environment that favours host-specific parasites.[28]

One theory of human hairlessness is that the loss of hair helped humans to reduce their burden of fleas and other ectoparasites.[29]

Direct effects of bites

Main article: Pulicosis

In numerous species, fleas are principally a nuisance to their hosts, causing an itching sensation which in turn causes the host to attempt to remove the pest by biting, pecking or scratching.

Fleas are not simply a source of annoyance, however. Flea bites cause a slightly raised, swollen, irritating nodule to form on the epidermis at the site of each bite, with a single puncture point at the centre, love a mosquito bite.[30]:126 This can lead to an eczematous itchy skin disease called flea allergy dermatitis, which is common in numerous host species, including dogs and cats.[27] The bites often appear in clusters or lines of two bites, and can remain itchy and inflamed for up to several weeks afterwards. Fleas can lead to secondary hair loss as a result of frequent scratching and biting by the animal.

They can also cause anemia in extreme cases.[30]:126

As a vector

Fleas are vectors for viral, bacterial and rickettsialdiseases of humans and other animals, as well as of protozoan and helminth parasites.[31] Bacterial diseases carried by fleas include murine or endemic typhus[30]:124 and bubonic plague.[32] Fleas can transmit Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia felis, Bartonella henselae, and the myxomatosis virus.[31]:73 They can carry Hymenolepiasistapeworms[33] and Trypanosome protozoans.[31]:74 The chigoe flea or jigger (Tunga penetrans) causes the disease tungiasis, a major public health problem around the world.[34] Fleas that specialize as parasites on specific mammals may use other mammals as hosts; thus, humans may be bitten by cat and dog fleas.[35]


Life cycle and development

Fleas are holometabolous insects, going through the four lifecycle stages of egg, larva, pupa, and imago (adult).

In most species, neither female nor male fleas are fully mature when they first emerge but must feed on blood before they become capable of reproduction.[3] The first blood meal triggers the maturation of the ovaries in females and the dissolution of the testicular plug in males, and copulation soon follows.[8] Some species breed every year circular while others synchronise their activities with their hosts’ life cycles or with local environmental factors and climatic conditions.[9] Flea populations consist of roughly 50% eggs, 35% larvae, 10% pupae, and 5% adults.[5]

Larva

Flea larvae emerge from the eggs to feed on any available organic material such as dead insects, faeces, conspecific eggs, and vegetable matter.

In laboratory studies, some dietary diversity seems necessary for proper larval development. Blood-only diets permit only 12% of larvae to mature, whereas blood and yeast or dog chow diets permit almost every larvae to mature.[11] Another study also showed that 90% of larvae matured into adults when the diet included nonviable eggs.[12] They are blind and avoid sunlight, keeping to dark, humid places such as sand or soil, cracks and crevices, under carpets and in bedding.[13] The entire larval stage lasts between four and 18 days.[14]

Pupa

Given an adequate supply of food, larvae pupate and weave silken cocoons after three larval stages.

Within the cocoon, the larva molts for a final time and undergoes metamorphosis into the adult form. This can take just four days, but may take much longer under adverse conditions, and there follows a variable-length stage during which the pre-emergent adult awaits a suitable chance to emerge. Trigger factors for emergence include vibrations (including sound), heat (in warm-blooded hosts), and increased levels of carbon dioxide, every of which stimuli may indicate the presence of a suitable host.[5] Large numbers of pre-emergent fleas may be present in otherwise flea-free environments, and the introduction of a suitable host may trigger a mass emergence.[13]

Egg

The number of eggs laid depends on species, with batch sizes ranging from two to several dozen.

The entire number of eggs produced in a female’s lifetime (fecundity) varies from around one hundred to several thousand. In some species, the flea lives in the host’s nest or burrow and the eggs are deposited on the substrate,[8] but in others, the eggs are laid on the host itself and can easily drop off onto the ground. Because of this, areas where the host rests and sleeps become one of the primary habitats of eggs and developing larvae.

The eggs take around two days to two weeks to hatch.[5] Experiments own shown that fleas lay more eggs on hosts which own limited food intakes, and that eggs and larvae survive better under these conditions, perhaps because the host’s immune system is compromised.[10]

Adult

Once the flea reaches adulthood, its primary goal is to discover blood and then to reproduce.[15] Female fleas can lay 5000 or more eggs over their life, permitting rapid increase in numbers.[16] Generally speaking, an adult flea only lives for 2 or 3 months.

Without a host to provide a blood meal, a flea’s life can be as short as a few days. Under ideal conditions of temperature, food supply, and humidity, adult fleas can live for up to a year and a half.[16] Completely developed adult fleas can live for several months without eating, so endless as they do not emerge from their puparia. Optimum temperatures for the flea’s life cycle are 21 °C to 30 °C (70 °F to 85 °F) and optimum humidity is 70%.[17]

Adult female rabbit fleas, Spilopsyllus cuniculi, can detect the changing levels of cortisol and corticosterone hormones in the rabbit’s blood that indicate it is getting shut to giving birth.

This triggers sexual maturity in the fleas and they start producing eggs. As soon as the baby rabbits are born, the fleas make their way below to them and once on board they start feeding, mating, and laying eggs. After 12 days, the adult fleas make their way back to the mom. They finish this mini-migration every time she gives birth.[17]


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