What is the best dog food for a dog that has allergies

Novel carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are large macronutrients which supply energy to the organism consuming them, and include nutrients such as sugars, oligosaccharides, and starches.[27] Dogs may become sensitive or allergic to certain carbohydrate sources in their diet, and novel carbohydrates may be used in an attempt to avoid this reaction.[7] Novel carbohydrates are carbohydrates which the dog they are being fed to has never consumed before.

Some examples of novel carbohydrate ingredients include brown rice and sweet potato,[3] as well as brewer’s rice.[28]

Zinc

Zinc supplementation in hypoallergenic dog foods aids in the maintenance of skin and jacket health.[6] Zinc also plays a role in mitigating inflammatory and immune reactions.[6] Zinc can be found supplemented as a mineral in the diet, but it can also be added in the diet through lamb meat, as this ingredient is known to be high in zinc.[26]

Omega-3 fatty acids

Essential n-3 fatty acids in dog food assist to treat the inflammation associated with allergic reactions.[6] These essential fatty acids assist to manage inflammatory responses by changing the levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids produced during a reaction.[6] They also assist to maintain healthy skin and to maintain cell structure.[6] These n-3 fatty acids are generally incorporated into dog food diets by using ingredients love fish oil.[21]

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an antioxidant which has significant functions in immune health.[6] These compounds scavenge for free radicals, protecting cell membranes from damage caused by lipid oxidation.[6] This is beneficial to own in hypoallergenic dog food diets to assist maintain cell integrity in case damage does happen due to a reaction.

Vitamin E is commonly found just as a vitamin supplement in diets, but it is also present in other food ingredients such as soybean oil,[22] corn oil,[23] olive oil,[24] and sunflower oil.[25]

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is involved in cell growth and division, as well as hair growth and skin maintenance.[6] Since some of the key symptoms of food allergies include damage to the skin,[9] it is significant to include Vitamin A in hypoallergenic diets to assist clear up the damage done by any previous allergic reactions a dog may own had.

Ingredients in dog food that function as a source of vitamin A are fish oils such as cod oil.

Fiber

Negative digestive effects that accompany dietary food allergies can be reduced by including soluble and insoluble fibers. Insoluble fibers own a relatively low fermentability, which assist to decrease the negative digestive effects such as gas and soft stools.[8] When soluble fibers are mixed with water they form a gel-like substance which helps to reduce gastric emptying in order to increase the time available for nutrients to be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract.[8] Compounds called fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are found in various soluble fibers, which aid in promoting intestinal health.[29] FOS act as a prebiotic to increase the growth of beneficial bacteria and hinder the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the animal’s digestive tract.

Common ingredients in dog food that provide such fibers include beet pulp, cellulose and chicory root.[29]


Most Common Dog Food Allergens

Wondering what is in dog food that causes allergies? «Meat, dairy, and eggs are often thought to be the most common dog food allergens,» says Shmalberg. «Yet generally, it’s the protein part of those foods that tend to be problematic, rather than, tell, the meat itself.» Hold in mind, veggies can contain protein, so they’re not automatically safe.

That same review BMC Veterinary Research identified some of the most frequently reported dog food allergens involved in adverse food reactions.

Here’s a glance, from most-reported to least-reported.

Top Dog Food Allergens (source: BMC Veterinary Research)

Dog Food Allergen Percentage of Dogs With Reported Reaction
Beef 34%
Dairy Products 17%
Chicken 15%
Wheat 13%
Soy 6%
Lamb 5%
Corn 4%
Egg 4%
Pork 2%
Fish 2%
Rice 2%

Shmalberg calls out two significant caveats to hold in mind here.

  • Starches are safer.

    Pure carbohydrates, aka starches, are beautiful low in or free of protein, which means dogs generally aren’t allergic to them.

    What is the best dog food for a dog that has allergies

    There are exceptions: while potato starch is probably safe, whole potatoes might cause an allergy because they contain proteins. Same goes for higher-protein grains love corn and wheat. But overall, grain allergies are much less common than meat allergies.

  • Peanut allergies are rare in dogs. And if they do happen, they typically aren’t of the severity reported in some humans. Excellent news if your pup is one of the numerous who love a PB treat!
  • Newer research is needed. Numerous of the studies out there, and those sourced in this review, are older, when dog foods were being made and processed differently than they are today.

    Allergies tend to change over time along with foods, and as new studies emerge, we may see diverse allergens rising to the top of the list.

  • Where there’s one allergy, there may be more. It’s estimated that more than a third of dogs with one food allergy are allergic to at least one additional food.
  • Watch for additives. Chemicals, preservatives, colorants, and flavorants aren’t likely to cause a true allergy, but they could trigger an adverse reaction or intolerance symptoms.
  • No two foods are exactly the same. There’s not a excellent deal of evidence to propose that a dog who has a reaction to one food it is going to react to a similar food. That is, a dog allergic to chicken won’t necessarily be allergic to turkey.
  • With fats, purity matters.

    Pure fats, love a pure fish oil, are free of protein and shouldn’t trigger a response. But traces of protein can sneak into oils and fats during processing, and in a highly allergic dog, cause issues.

  • The more common a food is, the more likely the allergy. «For an allergy to a food to develop, a dog needs to be exposed to that food,» says Shmalberg. «That may explain why the proteins most commonly found in dog food, love beef and chicken, drop higher on the list.»
  • Look out for gelatin. Supplemental oils often come in gelatin capsules, and that gelatin can trigger allergies in some dogs.
  • Food labels don’t always tell the whole tale.

    Some non-fresh kibble and canned foods own tested positive for proteins even when they’re not listed on the label.

More facts about dog food allergens that are helpful to know:

  1. No two foods are exactly the same. There’s not a excellent deal of evidence to propose that a dog who has a reaction to one food it is going to react to a similar food. That is, a dog allergic to chicken won’t necessarily be allergic to turkey.
  2. Watch for additives.

    Chemicals, preservatives, colorants, and flavorants aren’t likely to cause a true allergy, but they could trigger an adverse reaction or intolerance symptoms.

  3. Where there’s one allergy, there may be more. It’s estimated that more than a third of dogs with one food allergy are allergic to at least one additional food.
  4. Look out for gelatin. Supplemental oils often come in gelatin capsules, and that gelatin can trigger allergies in some dogs.
  5. With fats, purity matters. Pure fats, love a pure fish oil, are free of protein and shouldn’t trigger a response.

    But traces of protein can sneak into oils and fats during processing, and in a highly allergic dog, cause issues.

  6. Starches are safer. Pure carbohydrates, aka starches, are beautiful low in or free of protein, which means dogs generally aren’t allergic to them. There are exceptions: while potato starch is probably safe, whole potatoes might cause an allergy because they contain proteins. Same goes for higher-protein grains love corn and wheat. But overall, grain allergies are much less common than meat allergies.
  7. Peanut allergies are rare in dogs.

    And if they do happen, they typically aren’t of the severity reported in some humans.

    What is the best dog food for a dog that has allergies

    Excellent news if your pup is one of the numerous who love a PB treat!

  8. Food labels don’t always tell the whole tale. Some non-fresh kibble and canned foods own tested positive for proteins even when they’re not listed on the label.

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More facts about dog food allergens that are helpful to know:

  1. No two foods are exactly the same. There’s not a excellent deal of evidence to propose that a dog who has a reaction to one food it is going to react to a similar food. That is, a dog allergic to chicken won’t necessarily be allergic to turkey.
  2. Watch for additives.

    Chemicals, preservatives, colorants, and flavorants aren’t likely to cause a true allergy, but they could trigger an adverse reaction or intolerance symptoms.

  3. Where there’s one allergy, there may be more. It’s estimated that more than a third of dogs with one food allergy are allergic to at least one additional food.
  4. Look out for gelatin. Supplemental oils often come in gelatin capsules, and that gelatin can trigger allergies in some dogs.
  5. With fats, purity matters. Pure fats, love a pure fish oil, are free of protein and shouldn’t trigger a response. But traces of protein can sneak into oils and fats during processing, and in a highly allergic dog, cause issues.

  6. Starches are safer. Pure carbohydrates, aka starches, are beautiful low in or free of protein, which means dogs generally aren’t allergic to them. There are exceptions: while potato starch is probably safe, whole potatoes might cause an allergy because they contain proteins. Same goes for higher-protein grains love corn and wheat. But overall, grain allergies are much less common than meat allergies.
  7. Peanut allergies are rare in dogs. And if they do happen, they typically aren’t of the severity reported in some humans.

    Excellent news if your pup is one of the numerous who love a PB treat!

  8. Food labels don’t always tell the whole tale. Some non-fresh kibble and canned foods own tested positive for proteins even when they’re not listed on the label.

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Dog Food Allergies vs. Dog Food Intolerances

Dog food allergy treatment boils below to one underlying principle: identify foods your dog is allergic to and avoid feeding those.

«What most people ponder of as a dog food allergy is more appropriately called an cutaneous adverse food reaction, or CAFR,» says Dr.

Justin Shmalberg, a DVM and NomNomNow’s own veterinary nutritionist. «It basically means there’s some association between a food and a certain group of symptoms—usually skin problems or gastrointestinal problems.»

In a true dog food allergy, according to Shmalberg, the culprit is often a food protein that triggers an adverse immune response, which then causes cells in the body to release histamines, or compounds that lead to itching and numerous other allergic signs.

A dog food intolerance, on the other hand, doesn’t involve an immune response—but the signs of dog food intolerance can glance beautiful similar to the signs of a food allergy.

What is the best dog food for a dog that has allergies

One example is a lactose intolerance, which happens when a dog’s body just doesn’t process lactose in milk products well, leading to gastrointestinal problems (often diarrhea).

Both allergies and intolerances drop under that category of CAFRs, or, in more general terms, adverse food reactions. So, how prevalent are adverse food reactions in dogs? One 2017 research review published in BMC Veterinary Research examined just that. The findings propose that, of dogs seeing vets for any diagnosis, 1 to 2 percent own food intolerances or allergies; among dogs with skin diseases, the number jumps up a bit, to about 6 percent. For dogs with itching and allergies, even more—about one in five—show signs of adverse food reactions.

Still, true allergies, in which the immune system is attacking a food protein, are definitely less common than food intolerances.

The takeaway, says Shmalberg, is this: «If your dog is otherwise normal, even if he’s scratching a lot, a food allergy is unlikely. That said, diet can certainly frolic a role in helping to manage skin conditions and diseases, regardless of whether or not your dog has a food allergy.» We’ll discuss more about how you can tell the difference below.

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References

  • ^Kirimlioglu, V., Kirimliogu, H., Yilmaz, S., Ozgor, D., Coban.

    S., Karadag, N., and Yologlu, S. (2006). «Effect of Fish Oil, Olive Oil, and Vitamin E on Liver Pathology, Cell Proliferation, and Antioxidant Defense System in Rats Subjected to Partial Hepatectomy». Transplantation Proceedings. 38 (2): 564–567. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2006.02.005. PMID 16549176.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

  • ^Knapp, Brenda K; Parsons, Carl M; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C (2008). «Physiological responses to novel carbohydrates as assessed using canine and avian models». Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

    56 (17): 7999–8006. doi:10.1021/jf801042b. PMID 18707118.

  • ^ abcdefgKennis, Robert, A. (2006). «Food Allergies: Update of Pathogenesis, Diagnoses, and Management». Veterinary Clinics of North America: Little Animal Practice. 36 (1): 175–184. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2005.09.012. PMID 16364783.
  • ^Dodds, W. Jean (2014). Canine Nutrigenomics: The New Science of Feeding Your Dog for Optimum Heath.
  • ^Jensen-Jarolim, Erika (2017).

    Comparative Medicine: Disorders Linking Humans with Their Animals. Springer. p. 121.

  • ^ abCommins, Scott P; Platts-Mills, Thomas AE (2010). «Antigenicity of carbohydrates and their role in anaphylactic events». Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. 10 (1): 29–33. doi:10.1007/s11882-009-0079-1. PMC 3057034.

    PMID 20425511.

  • ^Teixeira, P. D., Ferreira, A. V. P., Neto, O. R. M., Gionbelli, M. P., and Santos, L. R. (2017). «Fatty acid profile of omasum from cattle fed with soybean oil, selenium and vitamin E». Journal of Animal Science. 95: 267–268. doi:10.2527/asasann.2017.547 – via ProQuest.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • ^ abEl-Awady, M.S., Said, E. (2013). «Vardenafil ameliorates immunologic- and non-immunologic-induced allergic reactions».

    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 92 (3): 175–180.

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    doi:10.1139/cjpp-2013-0316. PMID 24593781.

  • ^Hazell, Terrence (1982). «Iron and zinc compounds in the muscle meats of beef, lamb, pork, and chicken». Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 33 (10): 1049–1056. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740331017 – via Wiley Online Library.
  • ^ abcdefCave, Nicholas, J. (2006). «Hydrolyzed Protein Diets for Dogs and Cats».

    What is the best dog food for a dog that has allergies

    Veterinary Clinics Little Animal Practice. 36 (6): 1251–1268. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2006.08.008. PMID 17085233.

  • ^Murphy, KP (2001). «Stabilization of protein structure». Protein structure, stability, and folding. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. pp. 1–16.
  • ^Narimani-Rad. M., Nobakht, A., and Lotfi, A. (2011). «Influence of dietary supplemented semi-refined sunflower oil with vitamin E on some of serum biochemical and immunological measures in laying hens».

    Advances in Environmental Biology. 5: 1955–1959 – via InfoTrac.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

  • ^ abcdFavrot, Claud (2016). «Diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (including food allergy)»(PDF). World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology – via ZORA.
  • ^Valls, V., Goicoechea, M., Muniz, P., Saez, G.T., and Cabo, J.R. (2003). «Effect of corn oil and vitamin E on the oxidative status of adipose tissues and liver in rat».

    Food Chemistry. 81 (2): 281–286. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00425-9.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

  • ^Spitzauer, S. (1999). «Allergy to Mammalian Proteins: At the Borderline between Foreign and Self?». International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 120 (4): 259–269. doi:10.1159/000024278. PMID 10640909.
  • ^Holowinski, Margaret (2011). The Everything Rottweiler Book: A Finish Guide to Raising, Training, and Caring for Your Rottweiler. Simon and Schuster.
  • ^ abMandigers, PJJ; Biourge, V; van den Ingh, TSGAM; Ankringa, N; German, AJ (2010).

    «A randomized, open-label, positively-controlled field trail of a hydrolyzed protein diet in dogs with chronic little bowel enteropathy». Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 24 (6): 1350–1367. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0632.x. PMID 21054541.

  • ^Shmuel, D.L., Cortes, Y. (2013). «Anaphylaxis in dogs and cats». Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 23 (4): 377–394. doi:10.1111/vec.12066. PMID 23855441 – via Scholars Portal Journals.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • ^ abcLoureiro B.A., Sakomura N.K., Vasconcellos R.S., Sembenelli G., Gomes M.O.S., Monti M., Malheiros E.B., Kawauchi I.M., Carciofi A.C.

    (2016). «Insoluble fibers, satiety and food intake in cats fed kibble diets». Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 101 (5): 824–834. doi:10.1111/jpn.12468. PMID 27080580.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

  • ^ abPaterson S. (1995). «Food hypersensitivity in 20 dogs with skin and gastrointestinal signs». Journal of Little Animal Practice. 36 (12): 529–534.

    doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.1995.tb02803.x.

  • ^Stoeckel, K., Nielson, L.H., Fuhrmann, H., Bachmann, L. (2011). «Fatty acid patterns of dog erythrocyte membranes after feeding of a fish-oil based DHA-rich supplement with a base diet low in n-3 fatty acids versus a diet containing added n-3 fatty acids». Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 53: 57–68. doi:10.1186/1751-0147-53-57.

    PMC 3213045. PMID 22024384 – via Scholar’s Portal.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

  • ^Sarah Wooten DVM, «What’s The Purpose Of Limited Ingredient Dog Food?», The Idle Pup
  • ^ abcTavano, OL (2013). «Protein hydrolysis using proteases: An significant tool for food biotechnology». Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic.

    90: 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.molcatb.2013.01.011.

  • ^Verlinden, A.; Hesta, M.; Millet, S.; Janssens, G. P.J. (2007). «Food Allergy in Dogs and Cats: A Review». Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 46 (3): 259–273. doi:10.1080/10408390591001117. PMID 16527756.
  • ^ abcdVerlindin, A., Hesta, M., Millet, S., Janssens, G.P.J.

    (2007). «Food Allergy in Dogs and Cats: A Review». Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 46 (3): 259–273. doi:10.1080/10408390591001117. PMID 16527756.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

  • ^Knapp, B.K., Parsons, C.M., Swanson K.S., and Fahey, G.C. (2008). «Physiological Responses to Novel Carbohydrates as Assessed using Canine and Avian Models». Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (17): 7999–8006. doi:10.1021/jf801042b. PMID 18707118.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • ^ abcdefghijkWatson, Tim D.G.

    (December 1998). «Diet and Skin Disease in Dogs and Cats». J. Nutr. 128 (12 Suppl): 2783S–2789S. doi:10.1093/jn/128.12.2783S. PMID 9868266 – via Pub Med.

  • ^Di Donfrancesco B, Koppel K, Chambers E (2012). «An initial lexicon for sensory properties of dry dog food». Journal of Sensory Studies. 27 (6): 498–510. doi:10.1111/joss.12017.
  • ^ abSkaer Veterinary Clinic. (n.d.). Common Pet Food Ingredients. Retrieved from: http://www.skaervet.com/documents/Common%20Pet%20Food%20Ingredients.pdf

Allergies affect numerous diverse dog breeds, but collies are one of the breeds that are commonly affected[1]Rashes are common in dogs suffering from food-related allergic reactions[9]

Picture this: Your dog is constantly itching, scratching, and biting fur, and you can’t figure out why.

Maybe you’ve tried everything from changing grooming routines to special shampoos, to medications. But own you tried changing your dog’s diet?

Food is one culprit behind allergic reactions in dogs that owners often overlook. In fact, there are dog food allergies and dog food intolerances.

What is the best dog food for a dog that has allergies

Just love us, canines can suffer from either or both. And food allergies in dogs can cause not only digestive problems love vomiting and diarrhea, but also skin issues, and even behavioral problems. If you or your vet suspect your pup may own be having an adverse reaction to certain foods, and you’re wondering what it every means, you’re in the correct place.

We talked to Dr. Justin Shmalberg, a DVM and NomNomNow’s own veterinary nutritionist, to collect what you need to know. We’ll cover the following:

Allergies affect numerous diverse dog breeds, but collies are one of the breeds that are commonly affected[1]Rashes are common in dogs suffering from food-related allergic reactions[9]

Picture this: Your dog is constantly itching, scratching, and biting fur, and you can’t figure out why.

Maybe you’ve tried everything from changing grooming routines to special shampoos, to medications.

What is the best dog food for a dog that has allergies

But own you tried changing your dog’s diet?

Food is one culprit behind allergic reactions in dogs that owners often overlook. In fact, there are dog food allergies and dog food intolerances. Just love us, canines can suffer from either or both. And food allergies in dogs can cause not only digestive problems love vomiting and diarrhea, but also skin issues, and even behavioral problems. If you or your vet suspect your pup may own be having an adverse reaction to certain foods, and you’re wondering what it every means, you’re in the correct place.

We talked to Dr. Justin Shmalberg, a DVM and NomNomNow’s own veterinary nutritionist, to collect what you need to know.

We’ll cover the following:


Genetic Predisposition to Dog Food Allergies

Wondering whether your dog might be predisposed to food allergies or intolerances? Certainly there’s some evidence that if a parent has an allergy, their offspring is more likely to inherit it. So in that way, genes do frolic a role. But what doesn’t seem to be a factor is a dog’s breed. In fact, science has never confirmed that any one breed is more at risk for food allergies than another. «It can happen in any breed and in any dog,» says Shmalberg.

He also notes that some breeders and owners may own the view that deviating from the ancestral diet of certain breeds might predispose to allergies.

For example, Huskies are accustomed to fish diets in their natural habitat—so could feeding them poultry lead to an allergic reaction? In short, no. «There is no evidence to support that theory. Most dogs seem beautiful adaptable to a range of foods,» says Shmalberg.

What is the best dog food for a dog that has allergies

The age or sex of the dog also appears to own no relevance to food allergies or intolerances. Some vets do report that food allergies own been found in dogs less than 1 year ancient. So even young puppies can be affected (whereas they typically aren’t as susceptible to environmental allergies at this age).

Here are the top 10 breeds most frequently d along with the term «food allergies» or «dog food allergies»:

  • Shih Tzus
  • Westies (aka West Highland White Terriers)
  • Dachshunds
  • Pugs
  • German Shepherds
  • Golden Retrievers
  • Cocker Spaniels
  • Bulldogs
  • Pitbulls
  • Yorkies (aka Yorkshire Terriers)

Keep in mind, food allergies can happen in any breed, and, of course, some breeds may be searched more frequently just because they’re more favorite in general.

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Keep in mind, food allergies can happen in any breed, and, of course, some breeds may be searched more frequently just because they’re more favorite in general.

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Allergen responses and symptoms

Allergens can elicit both immunologic and non-immunologic responses.[2] Immunologic reactions, also known as Type 1 reactions,[10] are caused by the binding of ingested molecules to specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies.[11] Once binding occurs, mast cell degranulation follows, releasing granules that initiate the symptoms of an allergic reaction in the body.[2] These immunological reactions are almost instantaneous,[10] and it is widely accepted that the molecules which bind to IgE antibodies are generally intact proteins.[2] Non-immunologic, or non-IgE mediated reactions are less understood, but are known to present similar symptoms as immunologic reactions.[3] These reactions can be classified under food sensitivities, and it is argued that they are not truly allergenic.[2] Whether a reaction is truly allergenic in nature or a sensitivity, it is significant that hypoallergenic dog foods provide the ingredients necessary to hold canines from experiencing discomfort.

The signs of a canine food allergy or sensitivity vary greatly, but the most common to glance for include rashes, swelling, itchy or tender skin, and gastrointestinal upsets.[9] These signs are extremely similar to, but should not be confused with canine atopic dermatitis, which is not caused by food allergies.[9]


Diet types

Novel protein diets

Beef, soy, chicken, turkey and egg products are commonly used ingredients in commercial dog foods as a source of protein.[3][15] These protein sources own been proven to elicit an allergic response in dogs with food allergies.[3] Novel sources of protein can be used in put of these allergenic ingredients to meet the feeding requirements for a dog, while minimizing or eliminating the chances of an allergic response.

For a protein to be considered novel, it must be one that the dog has not consumed before.[16] Novel protein sources include venison, veal, kangaroo and fish, such as salmon.[17]

Hydrolyzed protein diets

One of the possible causes of food allergies in dogs is a reaction of the dog’s immune system to the proteins in a diet.[12] One method that may be used to attempt and combat this immunologic response in dogs with food allergies is the use of hydrolyzed proteins in the diet. Whole proteins are composed of single amino acids organized into a chain, which then interact in order to fold the protein into its final three-dimensional structure.[13] Hydrolyzed proteins are whole proteins that own been broken below into smaller polypeptides through a process called protein hydrolysis.

One method of protein hydrolysis involves the use of enzymes specific to proteins called proteases.[14] Proteases act by cleaving or cutting whole proteins at specific amino acids within their structure in order to form multiple little polypeptides from a single whole protein.[14] Diverse proteases are specific to diverse amino acids, and as such multiple proteases may be used in order to cut a protein at several diverse locations.[14] The theory behind the use of these little peptides in food as an alternative to whole proteins is that their little size will prevent them from stimulating the immune system of the gut, thereby reducing and/or preventing an allergic reaction.[12] When hydrolyzed proteins are used in hypoallergenic canine diets it is with the hopes of avoiding an immunologic reaction both in dogs that own consumed the whole protein previously and in dogs whose intestinal tract has never seen the whole protein before but has been known to react to other protein types.[2]

Limited ingredient diets

Introducing a food that consists of limited ingredients is a common method of reducing the occurrence of food related allergic reactions in dogs.

Limited ingredient diets are made up of fewer ingredients, typically limiting the formula to one protein, carbohydrate, and/or fat.[18] This is an attempt to improve digestion and reduce the likelihood of a reaction ensuing in dogs with sensitivities to common ingredients found in most commercial dog foods.[19] These diets will avoid protein and carbohydrate sources, such as beef, dairy, poultry, barley, and wheat.[4] There are numerous feed ingredients that own been observed to predispose animals to diet related reactions.

This is due to their frequent exposure to such ingredients, which makes it likely for them to adopt sensitivities and allergies to commercial dog foods.[20] Studies own shown that it is possible for dogs to own symptoms caused by more than one ingredient in a given diet, this makes the use of a limited ingredient diet relevant as a result of the inclusion of single protein and carbohydrate sources.[20] If symptoms of food allergies persist after the introduction of this type of diet, it can also be helpful for determining the new allergen that is causing the adverse reaction due to the limited number of ingredients.[4] Although these diets consist of fewer dietary ingredients, they still provide every the necessary nutrients to meet the animal’s requirements.


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