What is blue dye allergy

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer and is often found to be an additive in numerous foods or used in cooking. When consumed in large amounts it can cause adverse effects on those who are sensitive to it. Among the signs of a reaction, you might experience a feeling of warmth, flushing, headaches and chest pain. Fairly often MSG is found in Chinese cuisine, so those sensitive to this additive must request that it is excluded from the food preparation.

Another additive that may cause an allergic reaction is sulfites, which might happen naturally or be added to enhance crispness or to prevent it from spoiling. Sulfites are often used as a preservative in numerous foods and beverages.

Sulfites can be found in such products as wine, beer, and dried fruits. For those with sulfite allergies or intolerances, consuming a sulfite-containing product in large amounts may lead to in-breathing. This is of even greater concern for those with asthma, who already are predisposed to difficulty in breathing.

While food allergies are often diagnosed through blood tests, there are no tests available to diagnose a food dye, MSG or sulfite allergy. For this reason, one must hold a dependable diary of foods they eat and reactions that may result. This will then assist them to determine which food additive may be the cause of such a reaction.

Don't attempt to diagnose yourself; instead, talk to your doctor about your symptoms and about what testing she may recommend.


Chemical Thermodynamics

We’ve discussed aspects of thermodynamics previously. Why cover it again? According to the theoretical physicist Arnold Sommerfied:

«Thermodynamics is a amusing subject.

The first time you go through it, you don’t understand it at every. The second time you go through it, you ponder you understand it, except for one or two little points. The third time you go through it, you know you don’t understand it, but by that time you are so used to it, it doesn’t annoy you anymore.»

Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of the universe is increasing.

Entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder.

Spontaneous changes always go from a more ordered state to a less ordered state. There are numerous examples of this.

  1. If you put a drop of blue food coloring in a beaker of water, the dye tends to spread out and you get a pale blue solution. No matter how endless you wait, the colored molecules will never come back together to form a drop of dark blue in colorless water.
  2. Similarly, every of the oxygen molecules in this room will never spontaneously arrange themselves in one spot, leaving us to be asphyxiated.
  3. A block of shiny iron metal exposed to atmosphere will rust but that rust will never spontaneously convert itself back to pure iron and oxygen.

It is the entropy of the universe that must increase. This is a combination of the entropy of the system we investigate and the entropy of the surroundings.

Suniverse = Ssystem + Ssurroundings

A system can increase order (decrease entropy) but it requires an input of energy from the surroundings, making the surrounding more disordered. For example, you as a living thing are constantly making highly ordered chemical structures within your body.

To do this, you require a grand deal of energy from your surroundings in the form of food. If you stop taking in this energy, you will ultimately reach a more disordered, decomposed state.

Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of molecules and atoms. Increasing temperature increases the overall kinetic energy, the random motion of molecules, and so increases entropy.

When heat is released by an exothermic chemical reaction to the environment, the entropy of the surroundings increases. This means that Ssurroundings will be a positive number.

When heat is absorbed from the surroundings by an endothermic chemical reaction, the entropy of the surroundings decreases. This means that Ssurroundings will be a negative number.

We can calculate the entropy change of the surrounding that is caused by a chemical reaction from the enthalpy change of the reaction and the temperature.

Ssurroundings = — H/T

Within the chemical reaction system, entropy increases when the number of molecules of products is greater than the number of molecules of reactants or when the products own an inherently greater ability to move (stretch and bend) than the reactants.

The change in entropy in a chemical reaction can be calculated based on changes in volume, number of particles, and degrees of liberty between reactants and products.

In the forward reaction of the NO2 dimerization reaction, one molecule is formed from 2 molecules and entropy decreases. In the reverse reaction, 2 molecules are formed from 1 molecule and entropy increases.

NO2 + NO2 N2O4


Equilibrium

Chemical equilibrium is a state in which there is no net change in the concentration of reactants and products because the forward and reverse reactions are occurring at the same rate and the Gibbs free energy worth is at its minimum.

The Gibbs free energy change of a reaction tells us what the concentration of reactants and products will be at equilibrium. For a general reaction of a moles of A, b moles of B and c moles of C combining to form n moles of N, m moles of M, and o moles of O…

If the reaction is not at equilibrium, it will proceed in the forward or reverse direction to the minimum worth of the Gibbs free energy. At that point, there is no further change in the Gibbs free energy (G = 0) and the reaction is at equilibrium.


Obey the laws of thermodynamics!

Professor Patricia Shapley, University of Illinois, 2012

Gmt Dye Slub Crewnk Tee

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Gibbs Free Energy

Energy is the capacity to do work or release heat. In chemical reactions, we are not generally concerned with the entire energy but rather in changes of the usable chemical energy.

This is the Gibbs free energy change or G. The free energy is the capacity to do non-mechanical work at a constant temperature and pressure.

Chemical reactions spontaneously proceed in a way that leads to the minimum worth of G, that is to the equilibrium condition.

  1. When the G of a reaction is a negative number, the reaction will tend to proceed in the forward direction.
  2. When the G of a reaction is a positive number, the reaction will tend to proceed in the reverse direction.
  3. When the G of a reaction is zero, the system is at equilibrium and there will be no net change.

A spontaneous reaction is not necessarily a quick reaction.

Remember that the rate of a reaction depends not on the energy difference between product and reactant, but on the height of the activation barrier in a specific pathway.

The reaction between molecular oxygen and molecular hydrogen doesn’t happen at any measurable rate but it is thermodynamically favorable. At the standard temperature and pressure (STP) of 0 deg C and 1 atmosphere, the Gibbs free energy change is -237 kJ/mol. The negative worth means that the reaction should be spontaneous in the forward direction.

H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l) G0 = -237 kJ/mol


At STP the Gibbs free energy is G0 but the worth changes with temperature (T) an pressure (P) according to the formula under where R is the ideal gas constant.

G = G0 + R T ln P

The Gibbs free energy depends on both enthalpy and entropy. The entropy term is little at low temperature but becomes more significant as the temperature increases.

G = H — T S


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Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics

Energy is conserved. It is neither created nor destroyed.

We use this law of thermodynamics every the time.

In any chemical reaction, the energy contained in the reactants is equal to the energy contained in the products plus energy released to the environment or absorbed from the environment (as heat or pressure-volume work).

In numerous reactions, energy released or absorbed is entirely heat energy. Under constant pressure conditions, the change in heat energy in a reaction is called the enthalpy change, H. This is simple to measure by using a calorimeter.

Once we determine the energy change experimentally from several reactions, we can use the First Law to calculate energy changes in some other reactions.


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If you feel ill after eating a red or yellow snow cone, after a Chinese restaurant meal, or following a glass of red wine, you're not imagining your symptoms.

What is blue dye allergy

While foods such as wheat, milk, soy, and peanuts are common sources of food allergies, it's also possible to be allergic to food additives such as food dyes, MSG, and sulfites.

While grand care is taken by the U.S. Food and Drug Association to ensure that every ingredients in foods sold in supermarkets are safe to eat for the majority of people, there are numerous people who remain sensitive to some of the additives. Food dye allergies are rare, being found in only about 4% of people with allergies, but they still can be the source of grand concern.


Additives That May Cause Reactions

Allergic reactions own been found to happen in some people after they consume three dyes in particular: carmine, FD&C Yellow #5 and annatto.

Carmine, also known as natural red 4, is actually derived from the scale of dried insects. While this seems strange, it has been used in food since the 16th century.

Red dye #4 is found in foods such as burgers and sausages, drinks and candy. Typically it is found in foods with shades of red, pink or purple. An allergy to carmine has been reported to result in both minor and significant reactions, including anaphylaxis.

FD&C Yellow #5, also known as tartrazine, is one of two yellow food dye allergies. The symptoms associated with this allergy include reports of hives and swelling. This dye is often found in candy, canned vegetables, cheese, ice cream, ketchup, and boiling dogs.

Annatto is the other yellow food dye that has been associated with allergies.

It comes from the seeds of the achiote tree and it is responsible for giving foods a yellow-orange color. Reports of several cases of anaphylactic reactions own been associated with this dye. Annatto can be found in cereals, cheeses, snack foods, and drinks.

It is significant for those with food dye allergies to realize that this allergy is not limited to just food and medications. Numerous personal care products, such as soaps and lotions, as well as cosmetics love eyeshadow, blush and nail polish, can also contain these same dyes. The same is true for household products as well, such as cleaning supplies, crayons, and shampoo. Being familiar with how to read labels and what products to pay attention to are both extremely significant for those with food dye allergies.

Those who are having food dye reactions may experience mild or severe reactions. Among the most common symptoms, you will discover reactions such as headaches, itchy skin, swelling of the face or hives.

Severe reactions are similar to those of other food allergy reactions such as difficulty breathing, dizziness, fainting, low blood pressure, and trouble breathing. As in other allergic reactions, anaphylaxis can result, so immediate medical attention should be sought at the first sign of a reaction.


A Expression from Verywell

Unfortunately, the only way to treat any of these allergies is to avoid foods that contain the problematic ingredients. It is significant to be certain to read labels not only on foods and medications but on personal, household and cosmetic items as well.

Once you are certain to remove these from your lifestyle, you should be symptom-free.

Thanks for your feedback!

Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles.

What is blue dye allergy

Read our editorial policy to study more about how we fact-check and hold our content precise, dependable, and trustworthy.

WASHINGTON—Food dyes—used in everything from M&Ms to Manischewitz Matzo Balls to Kraft salad dressings—pose risks of cancer, hyperactivity in children, and allergies, and should be banned, according to a new report by the Middle for Science in the Public Interest. A top government scientist agrees, and says that food dyes present unnecessary risks to the public.

The three most widely used dyes, Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6, are contaminated with known carcinogens, says CSPI.

Another dye, Red 3, has been acknowledged for years by the Food and Drug istration to be a carcinogen, yet is still in the food supply.

Despite those concerns, each year manufacturers pour about 15 million pounds of eight synthetic dyes into our foods. Per capita consumption of dyes has increased five-fold since 1955, thanks in part to the proliferation of brightly colored breakfast cereals, fruit drinks, and candies pitched to children.

“These synthetic chemicals do absolutely nothing to improve the nutritional quality or safety of foods, but trigger behavior problems in children and, possibly, cancer in anybody,” said CSPI executive director Michael F.

Jacobson, co-author of the 58-page report, “Food Dyes: A Rainbow of Risks.” “The Food and Drug istration should ban dyes, which would force industry to color foods with genuine food ingredients, not toxic petrochemicals.”

Blue 1, Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6 own endless been known to cause allergic reactions in some people. CSPI says that while those reactions are not common, they can be serious and provide reason enough to ban those dyes. Furthermore, numerous studies own demonstrated that dyes cause hyperactivity in children.

But the biggest concern is cancer.

Back in 1985, the acting commissioner of the FDA said that Red 3, one of the lesser-used dyes, “has clearly been shown to induce cancer” and was “of greatest public health concern.” However, Secretary of Agriculture John R. Block pressed the Department of Health and Human Services not to ban the dye, and he apparently prevailed—notwithstanding the Delaney Amendment that forbids the use of in foods of cancer-causing color additives. Each year about 200,000 pounds of Red 3 are poured into such foods as Betty Crocker’s Fruit Roll-Ups and ConAgra’s Kid Cuisine frozen meals. Since 1985 more than five million pounds of the dye own been used.

Tests on lab animals of Blue 1, Blue 2, Green 3, Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6 showed signs of causing cancer or suffered from serious flaws, said the consumer group.

Yellow 5 also caused mutations, an indication of possible carcinogenicity, in six of 11 tests.

In addition, according to the report, FDA tests show that the three most-widely used dyes, Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6, are tainted with low levels of cancer-causing compounds, including benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl in Yellow 5. However, the levels actually could be far higher, because in the 1990s the FDA and Health Canada found a hundred times as much benzidine in a bound form that is released in the colon, but not detected in the routine tests of purity conducted by the FDA.

“Dyes add no benefits whatsoever to foods, other than making them more ‘eye-catching’ to increase sales,” said James Huff, the associate director for chemical carcinogenesis at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences’ National Toxicology Program.

“CSPI’s scientifically detailed report on possible health effects of food dyes raises numerous questions about their safety. Some dyes own caused cancers in animals, contain cancer-causing contaminants, or own been inadequately tested for cancer or other problems. Their continued use presents unnecessary risks to humans, especially young children. It’s disappointing that the FDA has not addressed the toxic threat posed by food dyes.”

CSPI’s report notes that FDA’s regulations mandate a stricter standard of safety for color additives than other food additives, saying that there must be “convincing evidence that establishes with reasonable certainty that no harm will result from the intended use of the color additive.” The standard of “convincing evidence” does not apply to preservatives, emulsifiers, and other additives.

CSPI charges that the FDA is not enforcing the law in several regards:

  1. Red 3 and Citrus Red 2 should be banned under the Delaney amendment, because they caused cancer in rats (some uses were banned in 1990), as should Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6, which are tainted with cancer-causing contaminants.
  2. Evidence suggests, though does not prove, that Blue 1, Blue 2, Green 3, Red 40, and Yellow 6 cause cancer in animals.

    There certainly is not “convincing evidence” of safety.

  3. Dyed foods should be considered adulterated under the law, because the dyes make a food “appear better or of greater worth than it is”—typically by masking the absence of fruit, vegetable, or other more costly ingredient.

In a letter sent today, CSPI urged the FDA to ban every dyes because the scientific studies do not provide convincing evidence of safety, but do provide significant evidence of harm.

A ninth dye, Orange B, is approved for coloring sausage casings, but in 1978 the FDA proposed banning it because it was found to be toxic to rats. The industry has not used Orange B in more than a decade.

Also, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has labeled Citrus Red 2 a carcinogen, and the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives said “this color should not be used as a food additive.” However, it poses little risk because it is approved only for coloring the skins of oranges.

Because of concerns about dyes’ impairment of children’s behavior, the British government asked companies to phase out most dyes by final December 31, and the European Union is requiring, beginning on July 20, a warning notice on most dyed foods. CSPI predicted that the label notice—“may own an adverse effect on activity and attention in children”—likely will be the death knell for dyes in every of Europe.

The greater government oversight and public concern across the Atlantic results in McDonald’s Strawberry Sundae in Britain being colored with strawberries, but in the United States with Red dye 40.

Likewise, the British version of Fanta orange soda gets its bright color from pumpkin and carrot extract, but in the United States the color comes from Red 40 and Yellow 6. Starburst Chews and Skittles, both Mars products, contain synthetic dyes in the United States, but not in Britain.

Fortunately, says CSPI, numerous natural colorings are available to replace dyes. Beet juice, beta-carotene, blueberry juice concentrate, carrot juice, grape skin extract, paprika, purple sweet potato or corn, red cabbage, and turmeric are some of the substances that provide a vivid spectrum of colors. However, CSPI warns that “natural” does not always mean safe.

Carmine and cochineal—colorings obtained from a bright red insect—can cause rare, but severe, anaphylactic reactions. Annatto, too, can cause allergic reactions.

“Food Dyes: Rainbow of Risks” was written by Sarah Kobylewski, a Ph.D. candidate in the Molecular Toxicology Program at the University of California, Los Angeles, and Michael F. Jacobson, executive director of the Middle for Science in the Public Interest. Jacobson is author of Eater’s Digest: The Consumer’s Factbook of Food Additives (Doubleday, 1972).


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