What is a true drug allergy

RIS

TY — JOUR

T1 — Skin test concentrations for systemically istered drugs — an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper.

AU — Brockow, K.

AU — Garvey, Lh

AU — Aberer, W

AU — Atanaskovic-Markovic, M

AU — Barbaud, A

AU — Bilo, Mb

AU — Bircher, A

AU — Blanca, M

AU — Bonadonna, B

AU — Campi, P

AU — Castro, E

AU — Cernadas, Jr

AU — Chiriac, Am

AU — Demoly, P

AU — Grosber, Martine

AU — Gooi, J

AU — Lombardo, C

AU — Mertes, Pm

AU — Mosbech, H

AU — Nasser, S

AU — Pagani, M

AU — Ring, J.

AU — Romano, Audrey

AU — Scherer, K

AU — Schnyder, B

AU — Testi, S

AU — Torres, M.

AU — Trautmann, A

AU — Terreehorst, I

PY — 2014/6

Y1 — 2014/6

N2 — Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions.

Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable indicator of true hypersensitivity.To promote and standardize reproducible skin testing with safe and nonirritant drug concentrations in the clinical practice, the European Network and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Interest Group on Drug Allergy has performed a literature search on skin test drug concentration in MEDLINE and EMBASE, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation.

Where the literature is poor, we own taken into consideration the collective experience of the group.We recommend drug concentration for skin testing aiming to achieve a specificity of at least 95%. It has been possible to recommend specific drug concentration for betalactam antibiotics, perioperative drugs, heparins, platinum salts and radiocontrast media. For numerous other drugs, there is insufficient evidence to recommend appropriate drug concentration. There is urgent need for multicentre studies designed to establish and validate drug skin test concentration using standard protocols.

For most drugs, sensitivity of skin testing is higher in immediate hypersensitivity compared to nonimmediate hypersensitivity.

AB — Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable indicator of true hypersensitivity.To promote and standardize reproducible skin testing with safe and nonirritant drug concentrations in the clinical practice, the European Network and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Interest Group on Drug Allergy has performed a literature search on skin test drug concentration in MEDLINE and EMBASE, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation.

Where the literature is poor, we own taken into consideration the collective experience of the group.We recommend drug concentration for skin testing aiming to achieve a specificity of at least 95%. It has been possible to recommend specific drug concentration for betalactam antibiotics, perioperative drugs, heparins, platinum salts and radiocontrast media. For numerous other drugs, there is insufficient evidence to recommend appropriate drug concentration. There is urgent need for multicentre studies designed to establish and validate drug skin test concentration using standard protocols.

For most drugs, sensitivity of skin testing is higher in immediate hypersensitivity compared to nonimmediate hypersensitivity.

KW — diagnosis

KW — drug allergy

KW — drug hypersensitivity

KW — intradermal test

KW — skin test

M3 — Article

VL — 68

SP — 702

EP — 712

JO — Allergy

JF — Allergy

SN — 0105-4538

IS — 6

ER —

ID: 2522138

In most cases, people with allergies develop mild to moderate symptoms, such as watery eyes, a runny nose or a rash. But sometimes, exposure to an allergen can cause a life-threatening allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis. This severe reaction happens when an over-release of chemicals puts the person into shock.

Allergies to food, insect stings, medications and latex are most frequently associated with anaphylaxis.

A second anaphylactic reaction, known as a biphasic reaction, can happen as endless as 12 hours after the initial reaction.

Call 911 and get to the nearest emergency facility at the first sign of anaphylaxis, even if you own already istered epinephrine, the drug used to treat severe allergic reactions.

Just because an allergic person has never had an anaphylactic reaction in the past to an offending allergen, doesn’t mean that one won’t happen in the future. If you own had an anaphylactic reaction in the past, you are at risk of future reactions.

Causes and Risk Factors of Asthma and Asthma Attacks

It’s unknown what exactly causes asthma, but scientists believe that both genetic and environmental factors frolic a role in the development of the disease.

Vancouver

Brockow K, Garvey L, Aberer W, Atanaskovic-Markovic M, Barbaud A, Bilo M et al. Skin test concentrations for systemically istered drugs — an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper.Allergy.

2014 Jun;68(6):702-712.

BibTeX

@article{1f55e4f583be4afc97b57b5bb8774d56,

title = «Skin test concentrations for systemically istered drugs — an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper.»,

abstract = «Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable indicator of true hypersensitivity.To promote and standardize reproducible skin testing with safe and nonirritant drug concentrations in the clinical practice, the European Network and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Interest Group on Drug Allergy has performed a literature search on skin test drug concentration in MEDLINE and EMBASE, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation.

Where the literature is poor, we own taken into consideration the collective experience of the group.We recommend drug concentration for skin testing aiming to achieve a specificity of at least 95{\%}. It has been possible to recommend specific drug concentration for betalactam antibiotics, perioperative drugs, heparins, platinum salts and radiocontrast media. For numerous other drugs, there is insufficient evidence to recommend appropriate drug concentration. There is urgent need for multicentre studies designed to establish and validate drug skin test concentration using standard protocols.

For most drugs, sensitivity of skin testing is higher in immediate hypersensitivity compared to nonimmediate hypersensitivity.»,

keywords = «diagnosis, drug allergy, drug hypersensitivity, intradermal test, skin test»,

author = «K. Brockow and Lh Garvey and W Aberer and M Atanaskovic-Markovic and A Barbaud and Mb Bilo and A Bircher and M Blanca and B Bonadonna and P Campi and E Castro and Jr Cernadas and Am Chiriac and P Demoly and Martine Grosber and J Gooi and C Lombardo and Pm Mertes and H Mosbech and S Nasser and M Pagani and J. Ring and Audrey Romano and K Scherer and B Schnyder and S Testi and M.

Torres and A Trautmann and I Terreehorst»,

year = «2014»,

month = «6»,

language = «English»,

volume = «68»,

pages = «702—712»,

journal = «Allergy»,

issn = «0105-4538»,

publisher = «Wiley-Blackwell»,

number = «6»,

}

Harvard

Brockow, K, Garvey, L, Aberer, W, Atanaskovic-Markovic, M, Barbaud, A, Bilo, M, Bircher, A, Blanca, M, Bonadonna, B, Campi, P, Castro, E, Cernadas, J, Chiriac, A, Demoly, P, Grosber, M, Gooi, J, Lombardo, C, Mertes, P, Mosbech, H, Nasser, S, Pagani, M, Ring, J, Romano, A, Scherer, K, Schnyder, B, Testi, S, Torres, M, Trautmann, A & Terreehorst, I 2014, ‘Skin test concentrations for systemically istered drugs — an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper.’ Allergy, vol.

What is a true drug allergy

68, no. 6, pp. 702-712.

Devotion to family

The show explores most of the main characters’ connections to their families in grand detail. Walt justifies his decision to cook crystal meth and become a criminal because of his desire to provide for his family.[81] In the third season he tries to exit the trade because it has driven Skyler to leave him. Gus convinces him to stay, telling him it is a man’s occupation to provide for his family, even if he is unloved.

Breaking Bad was filmed at various locations across Albuquerque.

Clockwise from top left: the home used for the Whites’ home, the quick food restaurant that was used for «Los Pollos Hermanos», the car wash where Walter works part-time, and the Doghouse, a functioning drive-in restaurant

Standard

Skin test concentrations for systemically istered drugs — an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper. / Brockow, K.; Garvey, Lh; Aberer, W; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; Barbaud, A; Bilo, Mb; Bircher, A; Blanca, M; Bonadonna, B; Campi, P; Castro, E; Cernadas, Jr; Chiriac, Am; Demoly, P; Grosber, Martine; Gooi, J; Lombardo, C; Mertes, Pm; Mosbech, H; Nasser, S; Pagani, M; Ring, J.; Romano, Audrey; Scherer, K; Schnyder, B; Testi, S; Torres, M.; Trautmann, A; Terreehorst, I.

In: Allergy, Vol.

68, No. 6, 06.2014, p. 702-712.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Research › peer-review

Author

Brockow, K. ; Garvey, Lh ; Aberer, W ; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M ; Barbaud, A ; Bilo, Mb ; Bircher, A ; Blanca, M ; Bonadonna, B ; Campi, P ; Castro, E ; Cernadas, Jr ; Chiriac, Am ; Demoly, P ; Grosber, Martine ; Gooi, J ; Lombardo, C ; Mertes, Pm ; Mosbech, H ; Nasser, S ; Pagani, M ; Ring, J. ; Romano, Audrey ; Scherer, K ; Schnyder, B ; Testi, S ; Torres, M. ; Trautmann, A ; Terreehorst, I. / Skin test concentrations for systemically istered drugs — an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper. In: Allergy. 2014 ; Vol. 68, No.

6. pp. 702-712.

Moral consequences

In an interview with The New York Times, creator Vince Gilligan said the larger lesson of the series is that «actions own consequences».[33] He elaborated on the show’s philosophy:

If religion is a reaction of man, and nothing more, it seems to me that it represents a human desire for wrongdoers to be punished. I hate the thought of Idi Amin living in Saudi Arabia for the final 25 years of his life.

That galls me to no finish. I feel some sort of need for Biblical atonement, or justice, or something. I love to believe there is some comeuppance, that karma kicks in at some point, even if it takes years or decades to happen. My girlfriend says this grand thing that’s become my philosophy as well. ‘I desire to believe there’s a heaven. But I can’t not believe there’s a hell.’

In a piece comparing the show to The Sopranos, Mad Men and The Wire, Chuck Klosterman said that Breaking Bad is «built on the uncomfortable premise that there’s an irrefutable difference between what’s correct and what’s incorrect, and it’s the only one where the characters own genuine control over how they select to live».

Klosterman added that the central question of Breaking Bad is: «What makes a man ‘bad’ – his actions, his motives, or his conscious decision to be a bad person?» Klosterman concluded that, in the world of Breaking Bad, «goodness and badness are simply complicated choices, no diverse than anything else».[13]

Ross Douthat of The New York Times, in a response to Klosterman’s piece, compared Breaking Bad and The Sopranos, stating that both series are «morality plays» that are «both interested in moral agency». Douthat went on to tell that Walter White and Tony Soprano «represent mirror-image takes on the problem of evil, damnation, and free will».

Walter is a man who «deliberately abandons the light for the darkness» while Tony is «someone born and raised in darkness» who turns below «opportunity after chance to claw his way upward to the light».[80]

APA

Brockow, K., Garvey, L., Aberer, W., Atanaskovic-Markovic, M., Barbaud, A., Bilo, M., … Terreehorst, I. (2014). Skin test concentrations for systemically istered drugs — an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper.Allergy, 68(6), 702-712.

Why Do You Own Asthma?

Asthma tends to run in families, suggesting there’s an inherited component to the disease. (1) You’re more likely to own asthma if your parents own it.

You’re also more likely to own asthma if you own atopic syndrome, or atopy — a predisposition toward certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions, such as atopic eczema and hay fever (allergic rhinitis). (6) Asthma and allergies often go hand in hand.

Having respiratory infections during infancy or early childhood is another risk factor for asthma. These infections can cause inflammation in the lungs and can damage lung tissue, affecting lung function later in life.

Similarly, research suggests that early contact with airborne allergens, irritants, and certain viral infections — in infancy or early childhood, before the immune system is fully developed — raises your risk of developing asthma.

(1,7)

What Triggers an Asthma Attack?

Numerous triggers can cause asthma attacks, including:

Tobacco smoke While smoking is unhealthy for anyone, it’s particularly dangerous for people with asthma. If you smoke, you should quit.

Secondhand smoke can also trigger an asthma attack. Avoid situations in which people around you smoke. Also don’t let people smoke in a put where you spend a lot of time, such as your home or car — even if you’re not present when they smoke.

Smoke from wood or grass Even though it may seem “natural,” smoke from these sources contains harmful gases and particles.

Avoid burning wood in your home.

If you live in an area where wildfires happen, monitor air quality forecasts and attempt to stay inside when particle levels are at their worst.

Outdoor air pollution Emissions from factories, cars, buses, lawn mowers, leaf blowers, and snow blowers can every trigger an asthma attack. Attempt to avoid exposure to these sources whenever possible.

It’s also a excellent thought to check air quality measurements related to pollution in your area, such as ozone and little particles, and to stay inside as much as possible when they’re elevated.

(8,9)

Certain foods and food additives While almost any food can cause an allergic reaction, a few additives (like sulfites and other preservatives) are widely believed to cause adverse reactions in some people.

Acid reflux can also trigger an asthma attack in some people, so any food that aggravates this condition may also be responsible for symptoms.

Respiratory infections These include influenza (flu), the common freezing, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and sinus infections.

Strong emotional states Negative emotions love stress, anxiety, depression, or fear can cause an attack, often by causing hyperventilation (heavy, quick breathing).

(9)

Certain medications While diverse people own diverse triggers, common culprits include aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve). (1)

Learn More About Causes of Asthma and Asthma Attacks: Common Risk Factors, Genetics, and More


Episodes

Main article: List of Breaking Bad episodes

The finish series was released on DVD and Blu-ray on November 26, 2013, in a collectible box shaped love one of the barrels used by Walt to bury his money.[67] The set contains various features, including a two-hour documentary[68] and a humorous alternative ending that features Cranston and his Malcolm in the Middle co-star Jane Kaczmarek playing their characters Hal and Lois, in a nod to the final scene from Newhart.[69][70]

Season 4 (2011)

Main article: Breaking Bad (season 4)

On June 14, 2010, AMC announced Breaking Bad was renewed for a fourth, 13-episode season.[73] Production began in January 2011,[74] the season premiered on July 17, 2011, and concluded on October 9, 2011.[75] Originally, mini episodes of four minutes in length were to be produced before the premiere of the fourth season,[76] but these did not come to fruition.[77]

Gus tightens security at the lab after Gale’s death.

Gus and Mike work to drive a wedge between Walter and Jesse, seeking to coerce Jesse to be their solitary cook while at the same time eliminating the Mexican cartel. Skyler accepts Walter’s meth cooking, and works with Saul to launder his earnings. Hank, while recovering, tracks Gale’s death to Gus and the drug trade. Gus releases Walter and plans to kill Hank. Walter tricks Jesse into turning against Gus, and convinces Hector to detonate a pipe bomb in the same room as Gus, killing them both.

Season 2 (2009)

Main article: Breaking Bad (season 2)

Jesse’s dealers become unsafe, and Walter hires Saul to join them to Gus as a buyer for their latest batch. Jesse dates Jane, and she relapses on heroin; Jesse becomes unreliable. Walter refuses to pay him his half of the sale to Gus, but Jane blackmails Walter. Walter returns to Jesse to apologize, but allows an unconscious Jane to choke on her own vomit. With Jesse in rehab, Walter seems content until he witnesses a midair collision of two planes, a result of Jane’s dad, an air-traffic controller, becoming distraught over her death while on the occupation.

Season 3 (2010)

Main article: Breaking Bad (season 3)

On April 2, 2009, AMC announced that Breaking Bad was renewed for a third, 13-episode season.[71] It premiered on March 21, 2010, and concluded on June 13, 2010. The finish third season was released on Region 1 DVD and Region A Blu-ray on June 7, 2011.[72]

Gus offers Walter a occupation cooking meth at a hidden lab. Walter demands Jesse be his assistant rather than Gus’ choice of Gale. Skyler learns of Walter’s meth cooking and demands a divorce.

Hank’s investigation leads him to Jesse, but finds no evidence and assaults Jesse, forcing him into a short leave. Hank is forewarned about an attack from two assassins, and kills them though he becomes paralyzed. Jesse’s behavior becomes erratic, and Gus replaces him with Gale. Walter fears Gus will kill him and Jesse once Gale learns enough, and instructs Jesse to kill Gale.

Season 1 (2008)

Main article: Breaking Bad (season 1)

The first season was originally intended to be nine episodes, but due to the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike only seven episodes were filmed.[23] It ran from January 20 to March 9, 2008.

Walter, diagnosed with inoperable lung cancer, conspires with Jesse to cook methamphetamine («meth») as a way to pay for his treatment and provide financial security for his family. Jesse secures a recreational vehicle to cook in, while Walter devises a production route using unregulated chemicals, creating a highly pure product tinted blue. After a run-in with the Mexican drug cartel, Walter adopts the name «Heisenberg», with his «blue sky» meth his signature product. Hank and the DEA become aware of this new figure in the drug trade and start their investigation.

What is a true drug allergy

Season 5 (2012–13)

Main article: Breaking Bad (season 5)

On August 14, 2011, AMC announced that Breaking Bad was renewed for a fifth and final season consisting of 16 episodes.[32] Season five is divide into two parts, each consisting of 8 episodes. The first half premiered on July 15, 2012, while the second half premiered on August 11, 2013.[78] In August 2013, AMC released a trailer promoting the premiere of final season with Bryan Cranston reading the poem «Ozymandias» by Percy Bysshe Shelley, over timelapse shots of Breaking Bad locations.[79]

Walt, Jesse, and Mike start a new meth trade.

When Todd kills a kid witness during their theft of methylamine, Jesse and Mike sell their share to Declan. Walt produces meth for Declan, and Lydia starts distribution in Europe, which is so successful Walt makes US$80 million, which he buries on the Tohajiilee Indian Reservation. Hank attempts to prove Walt is Heisenberg. Walt kills Mike and hires Jack’s gang to kill Mike’s associates and Jesse. The gang turns on Walt, kills Hank, captures Jesse, and takes most of Walt’s money. Walt uses the remainder to escape to New Hampshire.

Walt intends to surrender, but changes course after Elliott and Gretchen minimize his involvement in starting Gray Matter.

He leaves his money in a believe Elliott and Gretchen will ister for his children. He confesses to Skyler that he dealt drugs because he liked it. At Jack’s compound, Walt kills Jack and the relax of his gang with a remote controlled machine gun and frees the imprisoned Jesse, who kills Todd. Wounded, he asks Jesse to kill him, but Jesse refuses and departs.

What is a true drug allergy

Walt reminisces in Jack’s meth lab and eventually dies.


Production

Scientific accuracy

Donna Nelson, a professor of organic chemistry at the University of Oklahoma, checked scripts and provided dialogue. She also drew chemical structures and wrote chemical equations which were used as props. According to creator Vince Gilligan,

Dr. Donna Nelson from the University of Oklahoma approached us several seasons back and said, «I really love this show, and if you ever need assist with the chemistry, I’d love to lend a hand.» She’s been a amazing advisor. We get assist wherever we need it, whether it’s chemistry, electrical engineering, or physics.

We attempt to get everything correct. There’s no full-time [advisor] on set, but we run certain scenes by these experts first.[42]

«Because Walter White was talking to his students, I was capable to dumb below certain moments of description and dialogue in the early episodes which held me until we had some assist from some honest-to-God chemists,» says Gilligan. According to Gilligan, Nelson «vets our scripts to make certain our chemistry dialogue is precise and up to date. We also own a chemist with the Drug Enforcement istration based out of Dallas who has just been hugely helpful to us.»[43] Nelson spoke of Gilligan’s interest in having the science correct, saying that Gilligan «said it made a difference to him.»[44]

Several episodes of Mythbusters featured attempts to validate or disprove scenes from Breaking Bad, often with Gilligan guest starring in the episode to participate.

In 2013, two scenes from the first season of Breaking Bad were put under scrutiny in a Mythbusters Breaking Bad Special. Despite several modifications to what was seen in the show, both the scenes depicted in the show were shown to be physically impossible.[45] It was shown impossible to use hydrofluoric acid to fully dissolve metal, flesh, or ceramic as shown in the episode «Cat’s in the Bag…», and that while it was possible to throw fulminated mercury against the floor to cause a explosion, as in the episode «Crazy Handful of Nothin'», Walter would own needed a much larger quantity of the compound and thrown at a much faster speed, and likely would own killed every in the room.[46][47] A later Mythbusters episode, «Blow It Out of the Water», tested the possibility of mounting a automated machine gun in a car as in the series finale «Felina», and found it plausible.[48] An episode of Mythbusters Jr. proved that it was impossible for an electromagnet to draw metallic objects from across a room as in the episode «Live Free or Die».[49]

Jason Wallach of Vice magazine commended the accuracy of the cooking methods presented in the series.

In early episodes, a once common clandestine route, the Nagai red phosphorus/iodine method, is depicted, which uses pseudoephedrine as a precursor to d-(+)-methamphetamine.[50] By the season 1 finale, Walt chooses to use a diverse synthetic route based on the difficulty of acquiring enough pseudoephedrine to produce on the larger scale required. The new method Walt chooses is a reductive amination reaction, relying on phenyl-2-propanone and methylamine. On the show, the phenyl-2-propanone (otherwise known as phenylacetone or P2P) is produced from phenylacetic acid and acetic acid using a tube furnace and thorium dioxide (ThO2) as a catalyst, as mentioned in episodes «A No Rough-Stuff-Type Deal» and «Más».

P2P and methylamine form an imine intermediate; reduction of this P2P-methylamine imine intermediate is performed using mercury aluminum amalgam, as shown in several episodes including «Hazard Pay».[51]

One of the significant plot points in the series is that the crystal meth Walter «cooks» has extremely endless crystals, is extremely pure, and (despite its purity) has a strong cyan blue color. Truly ultra-pure crystal meth would tend to be clear or white.[52]

In their article «Die Chemie bei Breaking Bad» on Chemie in unserer Zeit (translated into English on ChemistryViews as «The Chemistry of Breaking Bad«), Tunga Salthammer and Falk Harnish discuss the plausibility of the chemistry portrayed in certain scenes.

According to the two, chemistry is clearly depicted as a manufacturing science without much explanation of analytical methods being provided. On the other hand, serious scientific subjects are mixed into the dialogue in order to show a world where chemistry plays a key role.[52]

Development history

The network ordered nine episodes for the first season (including the pilot), but the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike limited the production to seven episodes.[23] Within the original nine-episode arc, he had planned to kill off Jesse or Hank, as a «ballsy» moment to finish the season on.[17] This death was eliminated with the limited episode count, which Gilligan found to be a net positive given the strength of acting that both Paul and Norris brought to these roles through the seasons.[17] The strike also helped to slow below production endless enough for Gilligan and his writing team to readjust the pacing of the show, which in the original arc had been moving too quickly.[17]

The initial versions of the script were set in Riverside, California, but at the suggestion of Sony, Albuquerque was chosen for the production’s location due to the favorable financial conditions offered by the state of New Mexico.

Once Gilligan recognized that this would mean «we’d always own to be avoiding the Sandia Mountains» in shots directed toward the east, the tale setting was changed to the actual production location.[24][25] It was shot primarily on 35 mm film,[26] with digital cameras employed as needed for additional angles, point of view shots and time-lapse photography.[27]Breaking Bad cost $3 million per episode to produce, higher than the average cost for a basic cable program.[28]

Around 2010, AMC had expressed to Sony Pictures Television and Gilligan that they felt that the third season would be the final for Breaking Bad.

Sony started to store the show around, having gained quick interest from the FX network for two more seasons, upon which AMC changed its mind and allowed the show to continue.[29] At the same time, Netflix was starting to aggressively store for content to add to its service, and arranged a deal with Sony for Breaking Bad to be available after the airing of the fourth season. However, knowing that AMC had placed Breaking Bad on a potential cancellation route, Sony pushed to own the show added to the service in time for the fourth season.

Because of this, Breaking Bad's viewership grew greatly as viewers binged the series on Netflix, helping to guarantee that a fifth season could be made. The fifth-season premiere had more than double the viewership compared to the fourth season premiere, attributed to the Netflix availability.[29]

As the series progressed, Gilligan and the writing staff of Breaking Bad made Walter increasingly unsympathetic.[14] Gilligan said during the run of the series, «He’s going from being a protagonist to an antagonist. We desire to make people question who they’re pulling for, and why.»[15] Cranston said by the fourth season, «I ponder Walt’s figured out it’s better to be a pursuer than the pursued.

He’s well on his way to badass.»[16]

In July 2011, Vince Gilligan indicated that he intended to conclude Breaking Bad at the finish of its fifth season.[30] In early August 2011, negotiations began over a deal regarding the fifth and possible final season between the network AMC and Sony Pictures Television, the production company of the series. AMC proposed a shortened fifth season (six to eight episodes, instead of 13) to cut costs, but the producers declined.

Sony then approached other cable networks about possibly picking up the show if a deal could not be made.[31] On August 14, 2011, AMC renewed the series for a fifth and final season consisting of 16 episodes.[32]

Before the series finale, Gilligan said that it was hard to record for Walter White because the character was so dark and morally questionable: «I’m going to miss the show when it’s over, but on some level, it’ll be a relief to not own Walt in my head anymore.»[33] Gilligan later said the thought for Walter’s character intrigued him so much that he «didn’t really give much thought on how well it would sell», stating that he would own given up on the premise since it was «such an strange, dark story» that could own difficulties being pitched to studios.[20]

Gilligan thanked the on-demand video service Netflix at the Emmy Awards in September 2013 for the popularity of the series, saying that Netflix «kept us on the air».[34]

Casting

«You’re going to see that underlying humanity, even when he’s making the most devious, terrible decisions, and you need someone who has that humanity – deep below, bedrock humanity – so you tell, watching this show, ‘All correct, I’ll go for this ride.

I don’t love what he’s doing, but I understand, and I’ll go with it for as far as it goes.’ If you don’t own a guy who gives you that, despite the greatest acting chops in the world, the show is not going to succeed.»

—Vince Gilligan, about Bryan Cranston[35]

Breaking Bad creator Vince Gilligan cast Bryan Cranston for the role of Walter White based on having worked with him in the «Drive» episode of the science fiction television series The X-Files, on which Gilligan worked as a author. Cranston played an anti-Semite with a terminal illness who took series co-protagonist Fox Mulder (David Duchovny) hostage.

Gilligan said the character had to be simultaneously loathsome and sympathetic, and that «Bryan alone was the only actor who could do that, who could tug off that trick. And it is a trick. I own no thought how he does it.»[33][35] AMC officials, who were initially reluctant with the casting choice, having known Cranston only as the over-the-top character Hal on the comedy series Malcolm in the Middle, approached actors John Cusack and Matthew Broderick about the role.[36] When both actors declined, the executives were persuaded to cast Cranston after seeing his X-Files episode.[37]

Cranston contributed significantly to the formation and development of the Walter White persona.

When Gilligan left much of Walter’s past unexplained during the development of the series, the actor wrote his own backstory for the character.[33] At the start of the show, Cranston gained 10 pounds to reflect the character’s personal decline, and had the natural red highlights of his hair dyed brown. He collaborated with costume designer Kathleen Detoro on a wardrobe of mostly neutral green and brown colors to make the character bland and unremarkable, and worked with makeup artist Frieda Valenzuela to create a mustache he described as «impotent» and love a «dead caterpillar».[38] Cranston repeatedly identified elements in certain scripts where he disagreed with how the character was handled,[39] and went so far as to call Gilligan directly when he could not work out disagreements with the episode’s screenwriters.

Cranston has said he was inspired partially by his elderly dad for how Walter carries himself physically, which he described as «a little hunched over, never erect, [as if] the weight of the world is on this man’s shoulders.» In contrast to his character, Cranston has been described as extremely playful on set, with Aaron Paul describing him as «a kid trapped in a man’s body».[33]

Aaron Paul’s casting was also initially questioned by production, as Paul looked too ancient and too much love a «pretty boy» to be associated with meth cooking.

However, Gilligan reconsidered Paul’s skills after seeing his audition and recalling he had also had guest starred on The X-Files episode «Lord of the Flies».[21] Gilligan originally intended for Pinkman to be killed at the finish of Breaking Bad's first season in a botched drug deal as a plot device to plague Walter White with guilt. However, Gilligan said by the second episode of the season, he was so impressed with Paul’s performance that «it became beautiful clear early on that would be a huge, colossal error, to kill off Jesse».[40] Similarly, Dean Norris had shown his ability to be a law enforcement official in The X-Files episode «F.

Emasculata», and was brought on to be Hank Schrader, Walter’s brother-in-law and DEA agent.[41]

Conception

Breaking Bad was created by Vince Gilligan, who spent several years writing the Fox series The X-Files. Gilligan wanted to create a series in which the protagonist became the antagonist. «Television is historically excellent at keeping its characters in a self-imposed stasis so that shows can go on for years or even decades,» he said. «When I realized this, the logical next step was to ponder, how can I do a show in which the fundamental drive is toward change?»[13] He added that his goal with Walter White was to turn him from Mr.

What is a true drug allergy

Chips into Scarface.[14][15][16] Gilligan believed the concept of showing the full drastic transformation of a character across the run of a television show was a risky concept and would be hard to pitch without other powerful factors to support it, such as strong cinematography and acting.[17]

The show title is a Southern colloquialism meaning, among other things, «raising hell», and was chosen by Gilligan to describe Walter’s transformation.[18] According to Time entertainment editor Lily Rothman, the term has a broader meaning and is an ancient phrase which «connotes more violence than ‘raising hell’ does …

[T]he words possess a wide variety of nuances: to ‘break bad’ can mean to ‘go wild’, to ‘defy authority’, and break the law, to be verbally ‘combative, belligerent, or threatening’ or, followed by the preposition ‘on’, ‘to dominate or humiliate’.»[19]

The concept emerged as Gilligan talked with his fellow X-Files author Thomas Schnauz regarding their current unemployment and joked that the solution was for them to put a «meth lab in the back of an RV and [drive] around the country cooking meth and making money».[20]

After writing the concept for the show and pilot, Gilligan pitched it to Sony Pictures Television, who became extremely interested in supporting it.

Sony arranged for meetings with the various cable networks. Showtime passed on this, as they had already started broadcasting Weeds, a show with similarities to the premise of Breaking Bad.[21] While his producers convinced him that the show was diverse enough to still be successful, Gilligan later stated that he would not own gone forward with the thought had he known about Weeds earlier.[22] Other networks love HBO and TNT also passed on the thought, but eventually FX took interest and began initial discussions on producing the pilot.[21] At the same time, FX had also started development of Dirt, a female-centric crime-based drama series, and with three existing male-centric shows already on the network, FX passed up Breaking Bad for Dirt.[21]

One of Gilligan’s agents spoke to Jeremy Elice, the director of original programming for AMC who was looking for more original shows to add alongside their upcoming Mad Men.

Elice was intrigued, and soon a meeting was set up between Gilligan, Elice, and two programming executives. Gilligan was not optimistic about this meeting, fearing they would just put him off, but instead every three showed grand interest, and the meeting ended up establishing how AMC would acquire the rights from FX and set the pilot into production. It took about a year following this meeting before Sony had set up the rights with AMC and production could start.[21]

Technical aspects

Michael Slovis was the cinematographer of Breaking Bad beginning with the second season and he received critical acclaim for his work throughout the series.

Critics appreciated the bold visual style adopted by the TV series. Although series creator Vince Gilligan and Slovis wanted to shoot Breaking Bad in cinemascope, Sony and AMC did not grant them permission. Gilligan cited Sergio Leone’s Westerns as a reference for how he wanted the series to look.[53] For his work, he received four Primetime Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Cinematography for a One Hour Series and Outstanding Cinematography for a Single-Camera Series.[54]

Breaking Bad was shot on 35 mm movie film because of the robustness of the equipment and to hold a focus on shooting scenes economically.

Also it allows a later digital transfer to 4K resolution.[55] By the finish of the fifth season, episodes had cost upwards of US$6 million to produce.[29]

Kelley Dixon was one of the editors of Breaking Bad and edited numerous of the series’ «meth montages». For the montages, she would use techniques such as jump cuts and alternating the speed of the film, either faster or slower.[56] For her work, she received six Primetime Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing for a Drama Series and won the award in 2013.[54]


Premise

Set in Albuquerque, New Mexico between 2008 and 2010,[12]Breaking Bad follows Walter White, a meek high school science teacher who transforms into a ruthless player in the local methamphetamine drug trade, driven by a desire to provide for his family after being diagnosed with terminal lung cancer.

Initially making only little batches of meth with his previous student Jesse Pinkman in a rolling meth lab, Walter and Jesse eventually expand to make larger batches of a special blue meth that is incredibly pure and creates high demand. Walter takes on the name «Heisenberg» to mask his identity. Because of his drug-related activities, Walt eventually finds himself at odds with his family, the Drug Enforcement istration (DEA) through his brother-in-law Hank Schrader, the local gangs, the Mexican drug cartels and their regional distributors, putting his life at risk.


Cast and characters

Main article: List of Breaking Bad and Better Call Saul characters

Recurring characters

  1. Lavell Crawford as Huell Babineaux – Saul’s bodyguard who also handles problems Walter needs fixing.
  2. Daniel Moncada and Luis Moncada as Leonel and Marco Salamanca – Two ruthless and taciturn hit-men for the Juarez Cartel who are the cousins of Tuco Salamanca and the nephews of Hector Salamanca.
  3. Tina Parker as Francesca Liddy – Saul Goodman’s receptionist.
  4. Christopher Cousins as Ted Beneke – Skyler’s boss and president of Beneke Fabricators who begins developing financial issues, resulting in an intervention from Skyler.
  5. Raymond Cruz as Tuco Salamanca – A sociopathic Mexican drug kingpin who becomes Walt and Jesse’s meth distributor.
  6. John de Lancie as Donald Margolis – Jane Margolis’ dad, an air traffic controller.
  7. Matt Jones as Brandon «Badger» Mayhew – Jesse’s dimwitted friend and junkie, who often serves as the series’ comic relief.
  8. Steven Michael Quezada as Steven «Gomey» Gomez – Hank’s DEA partner and best friend who assists in tracking below and learning the identity of Heisenberg.

    In comical situations between him and Hank, Gomez serves as the «straight man».

  9. Bill Burr as Patrick Kuby – A hired con man of Saul’s who handles various sensitive tasks involving verbal intimidation, coercion, and misdirection.
  10. Rodney Rush as Christian «Combo» Ortega – Also a friend of Jesse and a fellow pusher.
  11. Michael Bowen as Jack Welker – Todd’s uncle and the leader of the Aryan Brotherhood, a white supremacist gang.
  12. Jeremiah Bitsui as Victor – A loyal henchman to Gus who serves as his enforcer along with Mike.
  13. David Costabile as Gale Boetticher – A chemist hired by Gus Fring to work alongside Walter.
  14. Jessica Hecht and Adam Godley as Gretchen and Elliott Schwartz – Co-owners of Gray Matter, a company that they co-founded alongside Walter, who left the trade prior to its major success.

    Gretchen was a previous flame of Walt’s and partially the reason he left.

  15. Ray Campbell as Tyrus Kitt – Gus’s enforcer along with Mike during season 4.
  16. Krysten Ritter as Jane Margolis – Jesse’s apartment manager and girlfriend, who is a recovering addict.
  17. Mark Margolis as Hector Salamanca – A previous high-ranking member of the Juarez Cartel who is now unable to stroll or speak because of a stroke, communicating with the assist of a bell. He is the uncle of Tuco, Marco, and Leonel Salamanca.
  18. Emily Rios as Andrea Cantillo – Jesse’s second girlfriend, who is also a recovering addict.

    She has a young son named Brock.

  19. Charles Baker as Skinny Pete – A friend of Jesse and a fellow pusher.
  20. Kevin Rankin as Kenny – Jack’s second in command.

Main characters

  1. Jonathan Banks as Mike Ehrmantraut (guest star season 2, main cast season 3–5: part 1) – works for Gus as an all-purpose cleaner and hitman, and also works for Saul as a private investigator. The character of Mike has been compared to Harvey Keitel’s Winston Wolf character in Pulp Fiction, which Banks says he is not trying to emulate: «I immediately tried to put it out of my mind, fairly honestly.

    His cleaner ain’t my cleaner. But throughout this world, you would suspect there had been a grand numerous cleaners, whether government-run or individual contractors.»[66]

  2. RJ Mitte as Walter White, Jr. – Walter and Skyler’s son, who has cerebral palsy. He begins lashing out after Walter’s cancer announcement. Love Walter Jr., Mitte has cerebral palsy, although his is a milder form.[62] Mitte stated he had to regress from his therapy to portray the character, staying up tardy into the night to slur his lecture and learning to stroll on crutches so his walking would not glance fake.[63]
  3. Giancarlo Esposito as Gustavo «Gus» Fring (recurring season 2, main cast season 3–4) – a Chilean high-level drug distributor who has a cover as an owner of the quick food chain Los Pollos Hermanos.

    Esposito stated that for the third season, he incorporated his yoga training in his performance.

    Gus is the coolest cucumber that ever walked the Ground.

    What is a true drug allergy

    I ponder about Eddie Olmos way back in Miami Vice. He was love dead – he was hardly breathing. I thought, how is this guy just standing in this fire and doing nothing? Gus has totally allowed me that level of flexibility and relaxation – not because he has ultimate power and he knows he can take someone’s life. He’s just confident.[65]

  4. Dean Norris as Hank Schrader – Marie’s husband, Walter and Skyler’s brother-in-law and a DEA agent.

    At the beginning of the series, Hank was intended to be the «comic relief». Norris, who has played several policemen before in film and television, stated:

    Having played so numerous cops, I’ve talked with a lot of technical advisers, so I’ve been capable to pick up a lot. Coincidentally, one of my best friends growing up is a cop in Chicago, and one of my other best friends out in LA is a sheriff. So I get to see every the components of that culture.[60]

  5. Aaron Paul as Jesse Pinkman – Walter’s cooking partner and previous student. Paul sees Jesse as a amusing kid.

    «He’s just this lost soul – I don’t ponder he’s a bad kid, he just got mixed in the incorrect crowd.» Paul elaborated on the character’s background, saying, «He doesn’t come from an abusive, alcoholic background. But maybe he just didn’t relate to his dad, maybe his dad was too strict and too proper for Jesse.» Paul compared the character’s relationship with Walt to The Strange Couple.[59]

  6. Betsy Brandt as Marie Schrader – Skyler’s sister and Hank’s kleptomaniac wife. Brandt described Marie as «an unpleasant bitch», but also stated there was more to her than that. «I ponder we’re seeing more of it now that she would be there for her family.

    But it’s every about her.»[61]

  7. Bryan Cranston as Walter White – a chemistry teacher who, shortly after his 50th birthday, is diagnosed with Stage III lung cancer and turns to making meth to secure his family’s finances. As his shady trade progresses, Walter gains a notorious reputation under the name of «Heisenberg». Cranston stated that, though he enjoyed doing comedy, he decided he

    … should really focus on doing something else. But I ponder any excellent drama worth its weight always has a sprinkling of comedy in it, because you can ease the tension to an audience when it’s necessary, and then build it back up again. Walt White has no clue he’s occasionally amusing, but as an actor, I recognize when there are comedic moments and opportunities.[57]

  8. Anna Gunn as Skyler White – Walter’s wife who was pregnant with their second kid before his diagnosis and who becomes increasingly suspicious of her husband after he begins behaving in unfamiliar ways.

    What is a true drug allergy

    Gunn sees Skyler as «grounded, tough, brilliant and driven». Gunn sees Skyler’s stalled writing career as her biggest dream, saying, «I ponder she really deep below yearns to be an artist and to be creative and productive.»[58]

  9. Laura Fraser as Lydia Rodarte-Quayle (recurring season 5: part 1, main cast season 5: part 2) – a high-ranking employee of Madrigal Electromotive and a previous associate of Gus Fring. She reluctantly begins supplying Walt and Jesse with methylamine and helps Walt expand his operation overseas.
  10. Bob Odenkirk as Saul Goodman (recurring season 2, main cast season 3–5) – a crooked strip mall lawyer who represents Walt and Jesse.

    Odenkirk drew inspiration for Goodman from film producer Robert Evans.

    I thought about Robert Evans because I’ve listened to The Kid Stays in the Picture on CD. He’s constantly switching up his cadence and his delivery. He emphasizes exciting words. He has loads of attitude in almost every line that he says. So when I rehearse the scenes alone I do my impersonation of Robert Evans to discover those moments and turns.

    Then I go out and I do Saul.[64]

  11. Jesse Plemons as Todd Alquist (recurring season 5: part 1, main cast season 5: part 2) – an employee of Vamonos Pest Control who becomes an associate of Walt and Jesse.

Special guest appearances

  1. Robert Forster as Ed Galbraith – A vacuum cleaner repairman whose undercover trade is a new identity specialist.
  2. Jim Beaver as Lawson – An Albuquerque arms dealer who obtains several guns for Walt.
  3. Steven Bauer as Don Eladio Vuente – The leader of the Juarez Cartel who has a history with Gus.
  4. Danny Trejo as Tortuga – A Mexican cartel member and DEA informant.
  5. DJ Qualls as Getz – An Albuquerque police officer who brings Badger into police custody, prompting Walt to turn to Saul Goodman.
  6. Charlie Rose as himself.


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