What is a stone fruit allergy

AF069: Bet v 1 family

References

  • Sliwiak J, Dolot R, Michalska K, Szpotkowski K, Bujacz G, Sikorski M, Jaskolski M:
    Crystallographic and CD probing of ligand-induced conformational changes in a plant PR-10 protein.
    J Struct Biol 2016, 193, 55-66. [PubMed][Full Text]
  • Seutter von Loetzen C, Hoffmann T, Hartl MJ, Schweimer K, Schwab W, Rosch P, Hartl-Spiegelhauer O:
    Secret of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1: identification of the physiological ligand.
    Biochem J 2014, 457, 379-90.

    [PubMed][Full Text]

  • D’Avino R, Bernardi ML, Wallner M, Palazzo P, Camardella L, Tuppo L, Alessandri C, Breiteneder H, Ferreira F, Ciardiello MA, Mari A:
    Kiwifruit Act d 11 is the first member of the ripening-related protein family identified as an allergen.
    Allergy 2011, 66, 870-7. [PubMed][Full Text]
  • Chen JY, Dai XF:
    Cloning and characterization of the Gossypium hirsutum major latex protein gene and functional analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Planta 2010, 231, 861-73. [PubMed][Full Text]
  • Fernandes H, Michalska K, Sikorski M, Jaskolski M:
    Structural and functional aspects of PR-10 proteins.
    FEBS J 2013, 280, 1169-99.

    [PubMed][Full Text]

  • ISHS members or returning users login using your ISHS user account authentication details — if required use the password recovery options.
  • Osmark P, Boyle B, Brisson N:
    Sequential and structural homology between intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins and a group of latex proteins.
    Plant Mol Biol 1998, 38, 1243-6. [PubMed]
  • Michalska K, Fernandes H, Sikorski M, Jaskolski M:
    Crystal structure of Hyp-1, a St.

    John’s wort protein implicated in the biosynthesis of hypericin.
    J Struct Biol 2010, 169, 161-71. [PubMed][Full Text]

  • Vieths S, Scheurer S, Ballmer-Weber B:
    Current understanding of cross-reactivity of food allergens and pollen.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002, 964, 47-68. [PubMed]
  • Radauer C, Lackner P, Breiteneder H:
    The Bet v 1 fold: an ancient, versatile scaffold for binding of large, hydrophobic ligands.
    BMC Evol Biol 2008, 8, 286. [PubMed][Full Text]
  • Markovic-Housley Z, Degano M, Lamba D, von Roepenack-Lahaye E, Clemens S, Susani M, Ferreira F, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H:
    Crystal structure of a hypoallergenic isoform of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and its likely biological function as a plant steroid carrier.
    J Mol Biol 2003, 325, 123-33.

    [PubMed]

  • Guhsl EE, Hofstetter G, Hemmer W, Ebner C, Vieths S, Vogel L, Breiteneder H, Radauer C:
    Vig r 6, the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts, cross-reacts with Bet v 1-related allergens and binds IgE from birch pollen allergic patients’ sera.
    Mol Nutr Food Res 2014, 58, 625-34. [PubMed][Full Text]
  • Park CJ, Kim KJ, Shin R, Park JM, Shin YC, Paek KH:
    Pathogenesis-related protein 10 isolated from boiling pepper functions as a ribonuclease in an antiviral pathway.
    Plant J 2004, 37, 186-98.

    [PubMed]

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Allergens from this family

The major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, is a member of the PR-10 family. Closely-related, cross-reactive allergens were found in the pollen of other trees from the order Fagales such as hazel, alder, oak and chestnut. Numerous birch pollen-allergic patients show allergic reactions to various fruits and vegetables, which are caused by IgE cross-reactivity between Bet v 1 and homologous allergens from plant foods [10].

Most Bet v 1-related food allergens were found in members of certain plant families: Rosaceae (apple, pear, rock fruits), Apiaceae (celery, carrot), and Fabaceae (soybean, peanut). Only two Bet v 1-related allergens were identified exterior the PR-10 subfamily. Vig r 6 is a minor allergen from mung bean and member of the cytokinin-specific binding proteins subfamily, a little subfamily distantly related to the PR-10 group [11]. Act d 11 is a minor kiwifruit allergen belonging to the MLP/RRP subfamily [12].

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Links to Wikipedia

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If you own updates or corrections for this entry, please contact the site istrator: christian.radauer@meduniwien.ac.at .

International Society for Horticultural Science

Links to Pfam

Family-defining Pfam domains (at least one of these domains is present in each family member):

Pfam domain Pfam clan
PF00407 Pathogenesis-related protein Bet v I family CL0209 Bet V 1 love

Biochemical properties

Bet v 1-related proteins are widely distributed among vascular plants. The family was classified by sequence similarity into two large and several little subfamilies showing low levels of sequence identity but conserved structures [1].

The largest of these is the pathogenesis-related protein family PR-10 [2]. The expression of these proteins is either induced by pathogen attack or abiotic stress or developmentally regulated. PR-10 proteins are expressed in high concentrations in reproductive tissues such as pollen, seeds and fruits. The biochemical function of most PR-10 proteins is unknown. For some PR-10 subfamily members an enzymatic function as ribonuclease [3] or oxidative coupling enzyme involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites was shown [4].

Love every members of the Bet v 1-family, PR-10 proteins contain a large ligand-binding cavity that can accommodate diverse ligands including plant steroids [5], cytokinins [6] and flavonoids [7]. The other large subfamily is a group of major latex proteins and ripening-related proteins (MLP/RRP) first described in the latex of opium poppy [8]. Their biologic function is unknown, but they appear to own a role in defense against biotic and abiotic stress [9].

Login/Logout

  1. ISHS members or returning users login using your ISHS user account authentication details — if required use the password recovery options.

  2. First-time users use this link to create and activate an ISHS user acccount first. An ISHS user account is valid for ISHS membership, pay-per-view article downloads, abstract submission,…

After login you can download the full-text version of the following article:

ISHS Acta Horticulturae 967:I Workshop on Floral Biology and S-Incompatibility in Fruit Species

[top]

Allergens from this family

The major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, is a member of the PR-10 family. Closely-related, cross-reactive allergens were found in the pollen of other trees from the order Fagales such as hazel, alder, oak and chestnut.

Numerous birch pollen-allergic patients show allergic reactions to various fruits and vegetables, which are caused by IgE cross-reactivity between Bet v 1 and homologous allergens from plant foods [10]. Most Bet v 1-related food allergens were found in members of certain plant families: Rosaceae (apple, pear, rock fruits), Apiaceae (celery, carrot), and Fabaceae (soybean, peanut). Only two Bet v 1-related allergens were identified exterior the PR-10 subfamily. Vig r 6 is a minor allergen from mung bean and member of the cytokinin-specific binding proteins subfamily, a little subfamily distantly related to the PR-10 group [11]. Act d 11 is a minor kiwifruit allergen belonging to the MLP/RRP subfamily [12].

[top]

Links to Wikipedia

[top]

If you own updates or corrections for this entry, please contact the site istrator: christian.radauer@meduniwien.ac.at .

International Society for Horticultural Science

Links to Pfam

Family-defining Pfam domains (at least one of these domains is present in each family member):

Pfam domain Pfam clan
PF00407 Pathogenesis-related protein Bet v I family CL0209 Bet V 1 love

Biochemical properties

Bet v 1-related proteins are widely distributed among vascular plants.

The family was classified by sequence similarity into two large and several little subfamilies showing low levels of sequence identity but conserved structures [1]. The largest of these is the pathogenesis-related protein family PR-10 [2]. The expression of these proteins is either induced by pathogen attack or abiotic stress or developmentally regulated. PR-10 proteins are expressed in high concentrations in reproductive tissues such as pollen, seeds and fruits. The biochemical function of most PR-10 proteins is unknown. For some PR-10 subfamily members an enzymatic function as ribonuclease [3] or oxidative coupling enzyme involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites was shown [4].

Love every members of the Bet v 1-family, PR-10 proteins contain a large ligand-binding cavity that can accommodate diverse ligands including plant steroids [5], cytokinins [6] and flavonoids [7]. The other large subfamily is a group of major latex proteins and ripening-related proteins (MLP/RRP) first described in the latex of opium poppy [8]. Their biologic function is unknown, but they appear to own a role in defense against biotic and abiotic stress [9].

Login/Logout

  1. ISHS members or returning users login using your ISHS user account authentication details — if required use the password recovery options.

  2. First-time users use this link to create and activate an ISHS user acccount first. An ISHS user account is valid for ISHS membership, pay-per-view article downloads, abstract submission,…

After login you can download the full-text version of the following article:

ISHS Acta Horticulturae 967:I Workshop on Floral Biology and S-Incompatibility in Fruit Species

S LOCUS MUTATION AND SELF-COMPATIBILITY IN Rock FRUITS

Authors: R.

Tao, D. Matsumoto

Keywords: Prunus, self-compatibility, SFB, S-RNase
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.967.11
Abstract:
Most Prunus fruit tree species exhibit the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system, in which self-/nonself-recognition is controlled by a single multiallelic locus, called the S locus.

A self-incompatibility (SI) reaction occurs when the same “S allele” specificity is expressed in both the pollen and pistil. Recently, the pistil and pollen S specificity determinants of Prunus own been shown to be the S-ribonuclease (S-RNase) and the S haplotype-specific F-box protein (SFB), respectively. Identification of the pistil S and the pollen S determinants led to the development of PCR-based S genotyping and marker-assisted selection for self-compatible (SC) individuals.

Although the function of SFB has yet to be clarified, it is now clear that the dysfunction of either the pistil or pollen S determinant leads to SC in Prunus. Thus suppression of either S-Rnase or SFB expression could be used to produce self-compatible cultivars in Prunus. However, this technique may not be applicable to apples and pears (the tribe Pyreae in the Rosaceae) because the recognition mechanisms in the S-RNase based GSI in these fruit species seem to be similar to those of Solanaceae and Plantaginaceae, where dysfunction of the pollen S determinant is supposed to result in self- and cross-incompatible pollen production.


Yamtono Sardi/Getty Images/iStockphoto

Yamtono Sardi/Getty Images/iStockphoto

If you own ever noticed an itchy or tingly sensation in your mouth after biting into a raw apple, carrot, banana or any of the fruits and veggies listed here, read on.

People who are allergic to pollen are accustomed to runny eyes and sniffles this time of year. But some seasonal allergy sufferers own it worse: They can develop allergic reactions to common fruits and vegetables.

The allergic reactions — which are generally mild — can come on suddenly. And people can react to foods they had been eating with no problem for most of their lives.

The condition is called oral allergy syndrome.

«I do ponder that this is one of the most underreported and underrecognized conditions, » says Dr. Carah Santos, an allergist at National Jewish Health in Denver.

People who own OAS are allergic to plant pollens. Numerous fruits and vegetables contain proteins that are similar to these pollens. So the immune system can error the fruit and vegetable proteins for the plant pollens that caused the allergy.

«We call it cross-reactivity,» explains Santos. «Your immune system sees something as looking extremely similar to something it already reacts to.»

Bananas were the trigger for Jessica Slattery, who lives in the suburbs of Denver.

She began to notice a reaction every time she ate one.

«The first thing I’d feel is a little itch on my tongue,» Slattery says. «I’d feel it below my throat … it’s just a little tingle.»

Sometimes, her lips would swell, too.

When Slattery described the reaction to her friends, they were skeptical. «They were, love, ‘How could you possibly be allergic to a banana?’ » Slattery recalls.

Fruits are not on the list of top allergenic foods; most people own only heard of the top culprits such as eggs, fish and nuts.

But Slattery knew it wasn’t in her head. Over time, she started reacting to other foods, including kiwi, pineapple and avocado.

She noticed she was most reactive to these foods during the spring and drop, when her pollen allergies kicked in.

The standard tests to detect food allergies often come back negative for people with OAS.

This happened to Slattery. «I had testing … for everything I thought I was allergic to, and everything came back negative.»

This was frustrating, she says, because several doctors could not explain what she had. Ultimately, an allergist diagnosed her with oral allergy syndrome simply by taking a detailed history of her symptoms. She says it was a relief to get the diagnosis.

«It was love, ‘OK, this is not in my head!

It’s a genuine thing,’ » Slattery says.

People with oral allergy syndrome are typically advised to avoid the raw foods they react to. But there is a workaround: Peeling or cooking the fruits and vegetables before eating them can be helpful.

For instance, if apples cause a reaction, applesauce may be OK. Or if bananas are a problem, attempt banana bread instead. «Oftentimes [people with OAS] can eat these foods because the cooking process can degrade the proteins that glance love the pollen,» says Santos.

The prevalence of oral allergy syndrome is unknown, but researchers who evaluated pollen-related food allergies in 2015 concluded: «Although epidemiologic data are scarce, there is no doubt that the increase in pollen allergies is going to be followed by an increase in the so-called pollen-related food allergies.»

Here are other tips on managing oral allergy syndrome from National Jewish Health:

  1. Take oral antihistamine medications to relieve mild symptoms.
  2. Bake or cook foods to degrade the protein and eliminate the cross-reaction.
  3. Eat canned fruits or vegetables during your pollen season.
  4. Avoid raw foods that cross-react with your pollen allergens.
  5. Peel the food, as the protein is often concentrated in the skin.

The experts at National Jewish Health advise that people call an allergist when OAS symptoms get worse or happen when eating nuts.

A-Z of fruit and veg

For more exciting facts about fruit and veg, plus grand ideas on how to eat your 5 A DAY, dive into the Alphabet of fruitand Alphabet of vegetableson World Cancer Research Fund's new Genuine Recipes website.

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Apple

Granny Smith, Royal Gala, Golden Yummy and Pink Lady are just a few of the thousands of diverse kinds of apple that are grown around the world!

You can make dried apple rings at home — enquire an adult to assist you take out the core, thinly slice the apple and bake the rings in the oven at a low heat.

Did you know you can cook apples? Attempt our yummy and healthy baked apples recipe.Back to top ↑

Apricot

Apricots can be eaten unused or dried — both are packed with vitamins! Unused apricots own a soft and slightly furry skin. They make a excellent lunchbox snack.

What is a rock fruit allergy

Apricots are also high in beta-carotene — this helps us hold our eyes and skin healthy.

Do you know where apricots grow? Frolic our online game ‘Where does it grow?’ to study where apricots and other vegetables and fruit grow.Back to top ↑

Asparagus
Asparagus is a shoot vegetable � we eat the stalk and the tip. It makes any dish glance more exciting with its unusual shape. Asparagus is a excellent source of a vitamin called folate, which is significant for healthy blood.Back to top ↑
Aubergine
Most aubergines are teardrop-shaped and own a glossy purple skin. On the inside, they are spongy and creamy white.

Aubergines grow on bushes and are really fruits — although you wouldn’t desire to eat them raw. Australians and Americans call it eggplant because some types glance a bit love large eggs!Back to top ↑

Avocado

It is sometimes called an avocado pear. Avocado is often mistaken for a vegetable because we eat it love a salad vegetable, but it is actually a fruit. Avocados are at their best when they are ripe and extremely simple to prepare. They can simply be cut in half with the rock removed and eaten with a little salad dressing or chopped into a salad.

Avocados are a excellent source of essential fats (the excellent ones) — one of the few fruits or vegetables that contain fat.

Is avocado a fruit? Test your knowledge. Take our ‘Olive-tastic’ quiz on vegetables and fruit.Back to top ↑

Banana

Bananas make a nutritious snack!

What is a rock fruit allergy

They are a grand source of energy and contain lots of vitamins and minerals, especially potassium, which is significant to assist cells, nerves and muscles in your body to work properly and it helps to lower blood pressure. They own a thick skin to protect them, which is green before bananas are ripe, and get more yellow in colour and sweeter in taste as they ripen. We peel away the skin and eat the soft fleshy part of the fruit underneath.

Bananas grow in hanging clusters, sometimes called hands, on the banana plant in tropical regions love Southeast Asia. You can eat them raw, baked, dried or in a smoothie. Why don't you attempt mashing it up and own it with yoghurt or porridge or even on brown toast?

Would you love to race a banana? Frolic our ‘Beat the banana’ online game and see if you can beat Bertie to the finish line.Back to top ↑

Beetroot

Beetroot is the root of the beet plant — which explains its name! People own grown it for food since Roman times. Raw beetroot is best for you and grand for grating — peel it first.

Attempt it in a salad or sandwich. Little beetroots are generally the sweetest. Ahhhh!

Did you know you can grow beetroot at home? Follow our guide to growing beetroot. It�s enjoyment and easy.Back to top ↑

Black-eye bean

In America, these beans are often called black-eyed peas or cow peas. They each own a little black dot on the side — this is where they were once attached to their pod, so it's a bit love a stomach button! You can stir them with every sorts of other beans to make a super salad.

Playing beanbag games is a grand way to stay athletic.

Study how to make a beanbag by following our simple guide.Back to top ↑

Broad bean

Another name for this bean is the ‘Fava bean’. Wide beans grow in a green, leathery pod. The beans can be eaten unused, when they are green, or dried, when they own turned brown. The way to identify them is by their flat, wide shape. Beans are a excellent source of protein and fibre.

Why not attempt growing a bean plant at home? It’s simple with our step-by-step instructions.Back to top ↑

Broccoli
Broccoli is closely related to cabbage — and it’s another one of those ‘greens’ we’re always being told to eat up.

The part of a broccoli plant we normally eat is the lovely flowerhead — the flowers are generally green but sometimes purple. Steamed broccoli is tasty in a salad or stir-fry.Back to top ↑

Brussels sprout
Brussels sprouts are love mini cabbages! They grow out of the ground in knobbly rows on a endless tough stalk. They contain loads of vitamin C. Can you guess which country BRUSSELS sprouts originally came from?

Well, Brussels is the capital city of Belgium!Back to top ↑

Butternut Squash

Butternut squash is large and pear-shaped with a golden-brown to yellow skin. We don't eat the skin and seeds, only the flesh. The flesh is really hard when it is raw but it turns soft and sweet when it is cooked. It can be roasted, pureed, mashed or used in soups or casseroles. It is a excellent source of beta-carotene, which is turned into vitamin A in the body.

What is a rock fruit allergy

Beta-carotene gives the flesh its bright orange colour.

Keep warm in the winter! Attempt making Mixer�s butternut squash soup.Back to top ↑

Carrot

Carrots grow underground and they can be used in every sorts of dishes — from casseroles to cakes. Raw carrots are grand to crunch on and they make a healthy juice, too. They contain lots of beta-carotene — this helps us hold our eyes and skin healthy.

Use carrots to make Captain Carrot and other ‘Funny face pizzas’.Back to top ↑

Cherry
Cherries are rock fruits — just love their friends the apricots. A cherry tree can carry on producing fruit for 100 years! Cherries grow from stalks in pairs.

Ahhh! Sweet ones love the Bing cherry are nicest on their own or in a fruit salad. Sour ones love Morello cherries are tastier cooked.Back to top ↑

Clementine

This citrus fruit is the smallest of the tangerines. The skin of Clementines can be peeled away easily and the segments don’t contain pips, which makes them a lot less messy to eat than some other varieties. They smell so yummy and naturally sweet. They are often eaten at Christmas time. Citrus fruits are a excellent source of vitamin C.

Add segments of clementine to a fruit kebab for a enjoyment way to eat fruit.Back to top ↑

Courgette

A courgette is a type of squash and if it isn't picked early, it grows into a marrow!

Courgettes grow on bushes. They glance fairly love cucumbers and own extremely soft seeds. They can be cooked with onions, tomatoes, aubergines and peppers to make ratatouille. The American name for a courgette is 'zucchini'.

Courgettes count towards your 5 A DAY. Download our ‘5 A DAY bingo’ game and own enjoyment playing bingo with your friends.Back to top ↑

Date

Dates are the fruit of the date palm tree and lots of them are grown in Egypt and California (USA). Dried dates make a super sweet snack.

They can be chopped and sprinkled on cereal instead of sugar or honey.

We use dates in our mince pie recipe. Why not attempt making mince pies this Christmas?Back to top ↑

Elderberry

These little, almost black berries grow on bushes every over the countryside in summer! They aren't excellent to eat raw but they are berry nice cooked with other fruits in pies or used to make jam!

WARNING: Some berries are poisonous, so don't pick them without checking with an adult first. And never eat the leaves!

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Endive

Endive is a member of the lettuce family.

It is shaped love a bulb and has leaves that overlap each other — attempt peeling them off one by one to see how numerous there are.

What is a rock fruit allergy

The leaves are a bit bitter on their own but they are yummy in a salad mixed with sweet tomatoes and slices of orange.

Endive leaves own a bright yellow tip. You could use some to add even more colour to our ‘Rainbow salad’ recipe.Back to top ↑

Fennel

This vegetable tastes a bit love liquorice! Fennel is a plant that grows in the ground. A bulb shape grows at the base of the plant, and this is the part that you eat. Raw fennel adds a super crunchy taste to salads.

You can also slice it and cook it love onion or celery to use in casseroles. The feathery leaves and seeds add flavouring to cooking, just love herbs.

Discover when fennel grows by reading our quick guide to what’s in season.Back to top ↑

Fig

Figs are soft sweet fruits, full of little seeds and often eaten dried. They grow on trees. Unused figs are yummy and jams and chutneys are often made from them. The skin of a fig is extremely thin and ripe figs do not hold or travel extremely well so in warm countries figs are dried.

Have you ever tried figs?

What other vegetables and fruit own you tried? Tell us on the ‘I tried’ page.Back to top ↑

Garlic

Did you know garlic can assist hold mosquitoes away?! And yes, garlic can make your breath smell a bit… garlicky! We eat every diverse parts of plants and garlic is the bulb. Open it up and you'll see lots of segments — or cloves — with a papery covering. You only need to use one or two of these to add loads of additional flavour to a food.

Do you know what garlic looks like? Match up pairs of pictures in our enjoyment online game and discover exciting facts.Back to top ↑

Grape

Grapes grow in bunches on vines.

On the inside, they are sweet, juicy and jelly-like. Green grapes are also called white grapes and are dried to make sultanas. Purple ones can be called black grapes and are dried to make raisins. There are red grapes too — red grape juice tastes totally delicious!

Did you know grapes are a healthy snack? Why not attempt making a ‘Healthy snack holder’?Back to top ↑

Green bean
French beans, runner beans, common beans, bobby beans, string beans, Thai beans, wax beans and haricots verts are every names for diverse types of green bean.

Wax beans aren’t even green — they can be yellow or purple! Green beans are picked when they are extremely young — they should be bright in colour and firm. If the pods are bendy, they won’t taste sweet and crunchy! To eat the beans, the ends should be chopped off — this is called topping and tailing. They only need to be cooked in boiling water for a few minutes then they are ready to eat. In France, they are often eaten in a salad with potatoes and tuna. Enquire an adult to assist you make one! Green beans are a excellent source of fibre, which helps hold your tummy healthy. They also contain beta-carotene, which helps us hold our eyes and skin healthy.Back to top ↑

Guava

The guava fruit is widely grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world.

It can be circular to pear-shaped with a thin skin that is green and turns yellow as it ripens. The flesh can be white or even pink, and the seeds can be eaten. The guava fruit contains lots of beta-carotene (which forms vitamin A in the body) and vitamin C. The flesh can make a grand snack or dessert chopped up, or scooped straight from the skin.

Did you know Guava is yellow? Download our yellow plant foods factsheet to study more about yellow vegetables and fruit.Back to top ↑

Haricot bean

These little beans are white and grow every over the world. Baking them gives you baked beans — the beans are cooked in a tomato sauce.

Attempt them on toast for breakfast.

What is a rock fruit allergy

Beans are excellent for giving you energy.

Haricot beans are a pulse. Study about other seeds and pulses with Searcher.Back to top ↑

Honeydew melon

Honeydew melons grow on trailing vines along the ground. There are THOUSANDS of diverse kinds of melon — they every own a hard exterior, which you can't eat, and a juicy sweet inside that makes your mouth water!

Our yummy ‘Rainbow fruit salad’ uses melon. Why not attempt making it?Back to top ↑

Iceberg lettuce

There are numerous, numerous kinds of lettuce to select from.

Iceberg has a cool, crisp taste. It adds lots of crunch to a sandwich! Other types of lettuce can be curly, dark green or even red! Iceberg lettuce leaves can make a excellent wrapper for other foods — attempt wrapping one around a piece of cheese or a boiled egg.

Grow your own lettuce leaves!Back to top ↑

Jerusalem artichoke
The knobbly Jerusalem artichoke is related to the beautiful sunflower.

But it isn’t a type of artichoke and it doesn’t come from Jerusalem! The bit of it we eat is an ugly little tuber (like a little thin potato). The yummy white flesh inside tastes amazing.Back to top ↑

Kiwi fruit

A kiwi fruit is hairy on the exterior and soft in the middle. It is one of the only fruits to be green when it is ripe. You can scoop out the juicy green flesh with a spoon just love a boiled egg! One kiwi fruit contains every the vitamin C you need for a whole day. Vitamin C helps your body to heal cuts and bruises and to fight colds.

We own lots of ideas for activities and games, including our enjoyment ‘Kiwi and spoon race’.Back to top ↑

Leek

These are in the same family as onion and garlic – they are allium vegetables.

Leeks need to be washed well to remove any dirt and grit between the white sections. You can boil or steam leeks to add to a recipe or stir-fry them with other vegetables. They are in season in the UK. over the winter months and are a excellent source of fibre.

Our leek and potato soup is simple and tasty.Back to top ↑

Lemon

Lemons were used on ships of renowned explorers – the vitamin C stopped sailors from getting a disease called scurvy. You can squeeze out the juice and stir it with water to make a zingy drink.

Did you know you can make invisible ink using a lemon? Own enjoyment pretending to be a secret agent.Back to top ↑

Mango

Mangoes come in diverse shapes and sizes.

You own to peel off the skin to eat the soft, juicy flesh inside. Mangoes grow best in boiling countries love India and Malaysia. There are more than 2,500 diverse kinds of mango in the world!

Our ‘Traffic light lollies’ recipe uses mango to make the orange light. What type of fruit do you ponder we use for red and green?Back to top ↑

Melon

There are numerous types of melon; honeydew, cantaloupe and galia, to name a few. The flesh of these diverse melons, which is the bit we eat, comes in diverse colours; cantaloupe is generally orange because it is high in beta-carotene, honeydew is generally pale-green to yellow and galia is generally a deeper green.

Unlike what its name may indicate, the watermelon is not actually a melon, just a distant relative of the melon. Its flesh is generally pink as it is high in the antioxidant, lycopene. Melons grow off a vine, and own a strong outer skin to protect them, which we don't eat. Melon goes grand chopped up in a fruit salad, adding lots of colour and flavour. It is extremely refreshing as a snack in the boiling summertime too!

We use melon in our exciting ‘Pirate party food’ recipe. Why not attempt making some?Back to top ↑

Mushroom

Although mushrooms are not fruits or vegetables (they are actually a type of fungus), they still count as one of your 5 A DAY.

They are tasty on toast with scrambled egg and a grilled tomato.

WARNING: Picking wild mushrooms is not safe! Only an expert can tell which ones are poisonous.

Make cute cat faces with our ‘Purrfect mushrooms’ recipe. It�s yummy, healthy and fun.Back to top ↑

Nectarine

Nectarines are a type of peach with a thin smooth skin and firm flesh. The skin of a peach is more furry but the fruit tastes almost exactly the same. You own to be extremely tender with them — they can bruise, just love you do, and the fruit will go bad where the bruise is.

You can use nectarines in a fruit salad or you could attempt making our enjoyment ‘Tutti-frutti sundae’.Back to top ↑

Nut

Your brain looks love a giant walnut.

To make it grow it needs protein, which is found in nuts! A nut is actually a fruit, or the seed of a fruit. There are lots of diverse kinds but they every own a hard, dry shell around a kernel (the part of the nut you eat). A Brazil nut tree can live for 500 years!

WARNING: Children under 5 should not be given whole or chopped nuts due to risk of choking. And please don't eat nuts if you are allergic to them!

‘Can you crack it?’ Attempt our enjoyment online game and see if you can match every the nuts with their shells.Back to top ↑

Olive

Olives are really fruits and they grow on trees. If green olives are left on the tree, they turn black. Own you had them on a pizza?

Olives come in numerous sizes and flavours so you may need to attempt lots of diverse ones to discover out which ones you love best.

Take the ‘Olive-tastic’ quiz. How much do you know about olives and other vegetables and fruit?Back to top ↑

Orange
Oranges are really renowned — they are one of the most favorite fruits in the world! Oranges grow best in countries such as Spain and Italy — where it’s boiling and sunny during the day and cooler at night.

A glass of pure orange juice counts as one of your 5 A DAY. Attempt cutting an orange into quarters and freezing it to make a healthy icy treat!Back to top ↑

Pea

Petit pois, mangetout, sugar snap and marrowfat are every fancy names for diverse types of pea. Thousands of tonnes of garden peas are grown in the United Kingdom every year to make frozen peas. A bag of these can come in handy if you've had a bump, but eating them is best of all! Sprinkle some over a salad a few minutes before serving for a freezing crunchy taste.

You could use peas to make one of our amusing ‘Potato faces’.Back to top ↑

Peanut

If you purchase peanuts in their shells, they are often called monkey nuts — they are given this name because monkeys are thought to love them!

Birds and squirrels love them too.

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Peanuts belong to the same family as peas and beans and grow underground.

Nuts make a healthier snack than crisps or chocolate. Study more about nuts and dried fruit.Back to top ↑

Pear
Which fruits always travel in groups of two? Answer: pears! Pears are from the same family as apples but they are softer. They can be yellow, green, reddish or brown on the exterior but they every own white, juicy flesh inside.

One of the best-loved English pears is called Conference.Back to top ↑

Pepper

Peppers can be red, yellow, green or orange — some are even white or purple! If you don't love the way one colour tastes, you might love another. The green ones are less sweet — red peppers are actually ripened green peppers.

Red peppers are a really yummy snack to own in your packed lunch. Plan your packed lunches with our online game.Back to top ↑

Pineapple

It can take TWO YEARS to grow a pineapple. This rough, spiky fruit is actually made up of lots of smaller fruits that own stuck together. It was given its name because early explorers thought it looked love a pine cone.

You could use the skin of a pineapple as a bowl to eat your fruit salad!

Try making this yummy pineapple dip recipe, and other ‘Tasty dips from around the world’.Back to top ↑

Pumpkin

Pumpkins are orange on the exterior, and also on the inside. Although we associate pumpkins with Halloween decoration, they are actually a tasty vegetable too (but we don't eat the exterior, just the flesh inside) and they are related to the cucumber. They can be boiled, baked, roasted or mashed and make yummy soups and even pumpkin pie! They own plenty of beta-carotene, which is turned into vitamin A in our bodies.

It is the beta-carotene that give pumpkins their orange colour. There is another part of the pumpkin we use too! Pumpkin seeds can be roasted and eaten as a tasty snack, or sprinkled over yoghurt, and are a excellent source of essential fatty acids (the excellent fats).

Get ready for Halloween. Make a pumpkin lantern. Hold the seeds and roast them to make a tasty snack.Back to top ↑

Quince

This fruit comes from the same family as the pear, but it can't be eaten raw.

Slices of quince taste lovely in an apple crumble. Quince smells of perfume when it's been cooked, which means that some people also use it as an air freshener for their home or car! Why don't you enquire an adult if you can attempt doing the same?

Do you know what a quince looks like? Frolic our online quiz to see if you can guess the vegetables and fruit from the pictures.Back to top ↑

Radish

While some radishes are little and red, others are large and white — and shaped love carrots. Some of the red ones own beautiful names love Cherry Belle and Scarlet Globe.

Radishes give salad a genuine ZING! They own a peppery taste and are really crunchy.

Radishes make salads colourful and crunchy. Grow your own at home. The best time to grow them is between March and September.Back to top ↑

Raisin

Nearly half of every the world's raisins come from California — that's in America. Raisins start off as black grapes. The grapes are turned into raisins by drying them in the sun. Sultanas are made the same way but with green grapes. Mini boxes of raisins are perfect for packed lunches.

Impress your friends with the ‘Incredible dancing raisin’ magic trick. Make raisins magically dance in water.Back to top ↑

Rhubarb

Rhubarb was used in Asia endless before it was first eaten in Britain.

People sometimes grew it in their gardens just because it looked nice! It can be mixed with sweeter fruit love apple. Don't eat the leaves, they are poisonous!

Rhubarb is lovely stewed on its own, but you could also use it in a yummy pancake topping. Attempt our healthy pancake recipe.Back to top ↑

Satsuma

Satsumas, clementines and mandarins are every diverse names for types of tangerine. They grow on trees and they grow best in warm weather. The juiciest ones are the heaviest ones. See if you can take the peel off in one piece!

Don’t throw away the net your satsumas come in!

You can use it to make a enjoyment microphone. Study to make other musical instruments too.Back to top ↑

Strawberry

Anyone for tennis? Followed by some strawberries of course! Around 25,000kg of strawberries are eaten at Wimbledon each year. Strawberries are actually members of the rose family. They are the only fruits to own their seeds on the exterior — one strawberry can own as numerous as 200.

You can turn strawberries into a cool, tasty treat.

Attempt making our icy ‘Strawberry granita’ recipe.Back to top ↑

Sweet potato

These top tubers grow best in tropical places where the weather is warm. They are renowned for appearing in lots of Caribbean recipes! They come in every kinds of knobbly shapes and just love the name suggests, they are sweeter than ordinary potatoes. Attempt them baked — or boiled and mashed with carrots.

Sweet potatoes make yummy wedges. Why not attempt our tasty ‘Root vegetable wedges’ recipe?Back to top ↑

Tomato

Ask a friend if they ponder a tomato is a fruit or vegetable and see if they know the answer (it's a fruit!).

The little cherry tomatoes are sweet and tasty in salads or in your lunchbox. Tomatoes are simple to grow in a pot in the garden. Purchase some seeds and own a go!

Tomatoes are yummy in sandwiches. We own lots of ideas for tasty sandwich fillings. Attempt making �Monster crunch’ or ‘Peter Pig’.Back to top ↑

Turnip

According to folklore, turnips were used as jack o' lanterns endless before pumpkins! The turnip is sometimes muddled up with its bigger relative, the swede. Both are lovely cooked in a stew, or boiled then mashed, or roasted. Raw turnip can be grated into a salad.

Use the ends of your turnip to ‘Grow root islands’. Attempt this enjoyment activity to grow little trees in water.Back to top ↑

Ugli fruit

An Ugli fruit is a cross between a grapefruit and a mandarin!

It is about the size of a grapefruit but it tastes a bit sweeter and has a wrinkly skin that peels easily. This funky fruit comes from Jamaica and is also grown in the USA — and it's not that ugly! It can glance a bit weird because its yellowy green skin is thick, rough and puffy — and sometimes a bit blotchy!

Doesn�t ugli fruit own a amusing name? If you love doing amusing things, frolic our ‘Funny food figures’ online game.Back to top ↑

Victoria plum

Plums come in every sorts of colours but Victoria plums are dark red and are grown in England. They are super sweet eaten raw or can be cooked in tarts and crumbles.

Plums own a rock inside. Can you ponder of other fruits that do?

Do you know which country grows the most plums? Frolic ‘Fruits and vegetables around the world’ to study more.Back to top ↑

Vine leaf

This is a leaf from the vines that grapes grow on — and these leaves CAN be eaten! They are picked when they are fairly young and then cooked slightly to soften them. They are used love a wrapping paper to make little parcels filled with things such as rice or finely chopped vegetables.

There are some leaves you can�t eat! But you could use them to make a leaf mask.

A grand thought for a fancy dress costume.Back to top ↑

Watercress
Watercress is grown in water! Give mum or dad a top tip — it will final longer in the fridge if it is kept in a bowl or jar of water. It is tastiest in the three «S»s — salads, sandwiches and soups. Attempt saying that quickly!Back to top ↑
Watermelon
Watermelons grow along the ground and they can be Huge. They contain lots of water and are really, really refreshing! In China, children love drinking watermelon juice in summer to assist them stay cool. The Chinese name for a watermelon is xigua.Back to top ↑
Yam
The skin of a yam is thick and rough love the bark of a tree!

Yams are a bit love potatoes but their flesh can be white, yellow or even purple. They come from boiling countries in the Caribbean and Africa, where people often mash them up and eat them in spicy stews and soups. A yam can grow to be heavier than a human adult!Back to top ↑

Zucchini

Zucchini is the American name for a courgette. You can discover more information on courgettes on this sheet. Take a look!

Back to top ↑

Antihistamines

Antihistamines work by blocking the effects of histamine, which is responsible for numerous of the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Many antihistamines are available from your pharmacist without prescription – stock up in case of an emergency.

Non-drowsy antihistamines are preferred.

Some antihistamines, such as alimemazine and promethazine, aren’t suitable for children under the age of 2.

If you own a younger kid with a food allergy, enquire your GP about what types of antihistamines may be suitable.

Avoid drinking alcohol after taking an antihistamine as this can make you feel drowsy.


Using an auto-injector

If you suspect that somebody is experiencing a severe allergic reaction, call 999 and enquire for an ambulance. Tell the operator that you ponder the person has anaphylaxis.

Older children and adults will probably own been trained to inject themselves.

You may need to inject younger children or older children and adults who are too ill to inject themselves.

There are 3 types of auto-injectors:

They every work in much the same way. If anaphylaxis is suspected, you should remove the safety cap from the injector and press firmly against the thigh, holding it at a correct angle, without using the thumb at the end.

A «click» indicates the auto-injector has been activated, and it should be held in put for 10 seconds.

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Ensure you’re familiar with the device and know the correct finish to put against the thigh.

The injections can be given through clothing. This will send a needle into your thigh and deliver a dose of adrenaline.

If the person is unconscious, check their airways are open and clear, and check their breathing. Then put them in the recovery position. Putting someone who is unconscious in the recovery position ensures they don’t choke if they were to vomit.

Place the person on their side, making certain they’re supported by one leg and one arm. Open the airway by tilting the head and lifting the chin.

If the person’s breathing or heart stops, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should be performed.


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