What ingredient in cat food causes allergies

Further information: Elimination diet

Hydrolyzed proteins

Main article: Hydrolyzed protein

Hydrolyzed proteins are often used as the primary source of protein in a diet, particularly in elimination diets, since these proteins do not cause allergenic responses.[12] This is because the digestive tract breaks below the protein into individual amino acids that the body is unable to recognize as the offending protein, allowing the protein source to bypass the allergenic immune response associated with IgE.[13] This avoidance of the immune reaction allows the animal to eat a sufficient protein source without the immune system interfering.[13]

Limited ingredient diets

Main article: Limited ingredient cat diet (LID)

A limited-ingredient diet, also known as limited-antigen food,[8] is an elimination diet that restricts the problematic foods that cause a reaction.

Generally these diets focus on removing specific proteins (protein-elimination diets) due to dietary allergies generally being caused by water-soluble glycoproteins,[9][10] but they can also be targeted towards the removal of gluten/wheat, vegetables, or a combination of both.[9] In commercially available versions of these diets, producers generally include one protein and one carbohydrate source, in an effort to minimize reactions to any foods.[9]

Homemade diets

See also: Cat food § Homemade food

Homemade diets are a type of elimination diet, which are made specifically for the cat with allergies, either by the owner or a third-party person love a chef.[11] Studies propose that commercial elimination diets may still react negatively with a cat, even if they are devoid of the target protein/other problematic foods.[11] Numerous pet owners, for this reason, select the homemade option, as it allows them to personally identify the pet’s history, tailor the diet with various ingredients, and consider the process a bonding experience.[9][11] Some drawbacks to a homemade diet are the time needed to store for the ingredients and the potential financial setback.[9]

Also, homemade diets are generally nutritionally deficient.

For example, a study found that 90% of homemade elimination diets are not adequate in terms of nutrition.[9] However, homemade diets are a grand way to determine which ingredient is causing the negative symptoms in the cat.[9]

Novel proteins

A novel protein is a protein source used in hypoallergenic diets to which the cat has not previously been exposed.[14] Common examples of novel proteins are lamb, rabbit, venison, duck, elk, kangaroo, ostrich, emu, goose and goat.[8] However, there is a chance of cross-reactivity when there is a higher taxonomic relationship between the two species.

For example, cross-reactivity could be caused by other ruminant meats if the cat reacted negatively to beef, or avian meats if the cat reacted negatively to chicken.[8]

Novel proteins can be used in elimination diets as well for long-term management. Numerous commercialized novel protein diets are nutritionally adequate and balanced. They own only one protein source and one carbohydrate source that the cats are unlikely to own ingested before.[15] Owners are more likely to be compliant when feeding a commercial novel protein diet than when feeding a home cooked diet.[8] This is due to the fact that it can be hard to obtain novel proteins for food preparation,[15] and it takes less time to provide a commercial diet than to prepare a home cooked one.[8] In the early ’90s, an experiment was performed showing that novel protein diets had a 70 to 80% success rate.[14] However, commercialized novel protein diets are not always effective, since they are not always tested on animals that own food sensitivities, and the manufacturing process of the diets can cause adverse reactions due to the inclusion of additives which may be allergens to some cats.[14] It is recommended that human-grade meat be used in the diet instead of pet food meats since pet food meats can include preservatives, which can be detrimental to the success of the diet.[15] Also, a study showed that if the processing machinery was not cleaned properly, ground meat that came from one animal could be contaminated with the ground meat from another animal.

This study found that four commercial diets using venison included products that were not on the label. Soy, beef and poultry were found in three of the diets, which are common antigens in cats. However, if the commercial novel protein diet does not cause an adverse reaction in the cat, it can be used endless term.[8]


Dog Food Allergies vs. Dog Food Intolerances

Dog food allergy treatment boils below to one underlying principle: identify foods your dog is allergic to and avoid feeding those.

«What most people ponder of as a dog food allergy is more appropriately called an cutaneous adverse food reaction, or CAFR,» says Dr.

Justin Shmalberg, a DVM and NomNomNow’s own veterinary nutritionist. «It basically means there’s some association between a food and a certain group of symptoms—usually skin problems or gastrointestinal problems.»

In a true dog food allergy, according to Shmalberg, the culprit is often a food protein that triggers an adverse immune response, which then causes cells in the body to release histamines, or compounds that lead to itching and numerous other allergic signs.

A dog food intolerance, on the other hand, doesn’t involve an immune response—but the signs of dog food intolerance can glance beautiful similar to the signs of a food allergy.

One example is a lactose intolerance, which happens when a dog’s body just doesn’t process lactose in milk products well, leading to gastrointestinal problems (often diarrhea).

Both allergies and intolerances drop under that category of CAFRs, or, in more general terms, adverse food reactions. So, how prevalent are adverse food reactions in dogs? One 2017 research review published in BMC Veterinary Research examined just that. The findings propose that, of dogs seeing vets for any diagnosis, 1 to 2 percent own food intolerances or allergies; among dogs with skin diseases, the number jumps up a bit, to about 6 percent.

For dogs with itching and allergies, even more—about one in five—show signs of adverse food reactions.

Still, true allergies, in which the immune system is attacking a food protein, are definitely less common than food intolerances. The takeaway, says Shmalberg, is this: «If your dog is otherwise normal, even if he’s scratching a lot, a food allergy is unlikely. That said, diet can certainly frolic a role in helping to manage skin conditions and diseases, regardless of whether or not your dog has a food allergy.» We’ll discuss more about how you can tell the difference below.

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Dog Food Allergy Symptoms

Sneezing.

Ear infections. Chronic Diarrhea. Restlessness. Dog food allergy symptoms run the gamut from skin reactions to gastrointestinal troubles to behavioral issues. Under you’ll discover a full list, broken below by category, to assist you identify whether your pup might be suffering from a food allergy or intolerance. Note, it’s estimated that about a quarter to a third of dogs with a food allergy also own environmental allergy, which «has similar, and at times indistinguishable, symptoms,» says Shmalberg.

Rarer Symptoms of Food Allergies in Dogs

These symptoms aren’t as common as those above, but may happen in some dogs.

  1. Secondary urinary tract infections (due to overgrowth of skin bacteria)
  2. Nasal discharge
  3. Seizures (food allergies could trigger them in predisposed dogs)
  4. Breathing issues
  5. Weight loss (in combination with severe diarrhea and/or vomiting)

Most Common Signs of Food Allergies in Dogs

These are the signs you’ll see most often with a food allergy, says Shmalberg, starting with the single most common symptom: itching.

  1. Hair loss
  2. Sneezing
  3. Leathery skin texture
  4. Scaly and/or oily skin
  5. Red eyes
  6. Eye discharge
  7. Skin rashes
  8. Pigmented skin
  9. Hot spots
  10. Ear infections
  11. Itchy paws
  12. Itching (aka pruritus)
  13. Secondary yeast or bacterial infections (aka pyoderma) of the skin or ears

One study ranked the parts of the body most often involved in itching related to food allergies, as follows:

  1. Inner thigh/belly (53 percent)
  2. Ears (involved 80 percent of the time)
  3. Paws (61 percent)
  4. Eye or front leg area (33 percent).

Gastrointestinal Food Allergy Symptoms in Dogs

According to Shmalberg, only 10 to 30 percent of dogs with confirmed food allergies own gastrointestinal, or GI, symptoms love vomiting or diarrhea.

«This is a condition that is much more often linked to skin symptoms,» he explains (see above). «Sudden and short-lived GI symptoms are almost never caused by a food allergy. On the other hand, food allergies can contribute to or cause certain chronic symptoms.»

  1. Vomiting
  2. Diarrhea with or without blood and/or mucus in stool
  3. Straining to pass stool
  4. Abdominal pain

Behavioral Symptoms

The symptoms under are also more rare, and generally secondary to or linked to discomfort from symptoms listed above.

  1. Withdrawal or reduced interest in playtime
  2. Frequent scratching of self on furniture, owner’s legs, etc.
  3. Frequent shaking ears or scratching ears
  4. Restlessness
  5. Biting at paws, rear finish, and/or tail
  6. Anorexia, or disinterest in or refusal of food

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References

  • ^ abCave, Nicholas J.

    (November 2006). «Hydrolyzed Protein Diets for Dogs and Cats». Veterinary Clinics of North America: Little Animal Practice. 36 (6): 1251–1268. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2006.08.008. PMID 17085233.

  • ^Guaguère, E (1995). «Food intolerance in cats with cutaneous manifestations: a review of 17 cases». European Journal of Companion Animal Practice. 5: 27–35.
  • ^ abcdefgCase, Linda (2010).

    Canine and Feline Nutrition-E-Book. 3251 Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby, Inc. p. 400.CS1 maint: location (link)

  • ^ abCarlotti, Didier N.; Remy, Isabelle; Prost, Christine (1990-06-01). «Food Allergy In Dogs And Cats. A Review and Report of 43 Cases».

    What ingredient in cat food causes allergies

    Veterinary Dermatology. 1 (2): 55–62. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3164.1990.tb00080.x. ISSN 1365-3164.

  • ^Zoran, Deb (November 2003). «Nutritional management of gastrointestinal disease». Clinical Techniques in Little Animal Practice. 18 (4): 211–217. doi:10.1016/S1096-2867(03)00074-4.

    What ingredient in cat food causes allergies

    PMID 14738201.

  • ^ abcCase, Linda (2010). Canine and Feline Nutrition-E-Book. 3251 Riverpool Lane, Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby, Inc. p. 399.CS1 maint: location (link)
  • ^Carlotti, Didier N. (2013). «Cutaneous Manifestations of Food Hypersensitivity». Veterinary Allergy. pp. 108–114. doi:10.1002/9781118738818.ch16. ISBN .
  • ^Leistra, M.; Willemse, T. (December 2002). «Double-blind evaluation of two commercial hypoallergenic diets in cats with adverse food reactions».

    Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 4 (4): 185–188. doi:10.1053/jfms.2001.0193. ISSN 1098-612X. PMID 12468310.

  • ^ abcdefGaschen, Frédéric P.; Merchant, Sandra R. (March 2011). «Adverse Food Reactions in Dogs and Cats». Veterinary Clinics of North America: Little Animal Practice. 41 (2): 361–379.

    doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2011.02.005. PMID 21486641.

  • ^ abcVerlinden, A.; Hesta, M.; Millet, S.; Janssens, G. P.J. (18 January 2007). «Food Allergy in Dogs and Cats: A Review». Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 46 (3): 259–273. doi:10.1080/10408390591001117. PMID 16527756.
  • ^Scott, D. (2001). «Skin Immune System and Allergic Skin Diseases». Muller & Kirk’s Little Animal Dermatology. pp. 543–666. doi:10.1016/B978-0-7216-7618-0.50012-2.

    What ingredient in cat food causes allergies

    ISBN .

  • ^DACVD, Hilary A. Jackson BVM&S DVD. «Dermatologic manifestations and nutritional management of adverse food reactions». dvm360.com.

    What ingredient in cat food causes allergies

    Retrieved 2017-11-29.

  • ^«Feline Food Allergies». www.vet.cornell.edu.

    What ingredient in cat food causes allergies

    Retrieved 2017-11-29.

  • ^«Feline Atopic Dermatitis — Integumentary System — Merck Veterinary Manual». Merck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved 2018-01-02.
  • ^ abcVogelnest, LJ; Cheng, KY (November 2013). «Cutaneous adverse food reactions in cats: retrospective evaluation of 17 cases in a dermatology referral population (2001-2011)».

    Australian Veterinary Journal. 91 (11): 443–451. doi:10.1111/avj.12112. PMID 24571298.

A cat showing extreme signs of pruritis.

Picture this: Your dog is constantly itching, scratching, and biting fur, and you can’t figure out why. Maybe you’ve tried everything from changing grooming routines to special shampoos, to medications. But own you tried changing your dog’s diet?

Food is one culprit behind allergic reactions in dogs that owners often overlook. In fact, there are dog food allergies and dog food intolerances.

Just love us, canines can suffer from either or both. And food allergies in dogs can cause not only digestive problems love vomiting and diarrhea, but also skin issues, and even behavioral problems. If you or your vet suspect your pup may own be having an adverse reaction to certain foods, and you’re wondering what it every means, you’re in the correct place.

We talked to Dr. Justin Shmalberg, a DVM and NomNomNow’s own veterinary nutritionist, to collect what you need to know. We’ll cover the following:

A cat showing extreme signs of pruritis.

Picture this: Your dog is constantly itching, scratching, and biting fur, and you can’t figure out why.

Maybe you’ve tried everything from changing grooming routines to special shampoos, to medications. But own you tried changing your dog’s diet?

Food is one culprit behind allergic reactions in dogs that owners often overlook. In fact, there are dog food allergies and dog food intolerances. Just love us, canines can suffer from either or both. And food allergies in dogs can cause not only digestive problems love vomiting and diarrhea, but also skin issues, and even behavioral problems. If you or your vet suspect your pup may own be having an adverse reaction to certain foods, and you’re wondering what it every means, you’re in the correct place.

We talked to Dr.

Justin Shmalberg, a DVM and NomNomNow’s own veterinary nutritionist, to collect what you need to know. We’ll cover the following:


Genetic Predisposition to Dog Food Allergies

Wondering whether your dog might be predisposed to food allergies or intolerances? Certainly there’s some evidence that if a parent has an allergy, their offspring is more likely to inherit it. So in that way, genes do frolic a role. But what doesn’t seem to be a factor is a dog’s breed. In fact, science has never confirmed that any one breed is more at risk for food allergies than another. «It can happen in any breed and in any dog,» says Shmalberg.

He also notes that some breeders and owners may own the view that deviating from the ancestral diet of certain breeds might predispose to allergies.

For example, Huskies are accustomed to fish diets in their natural habitat—so could feeding them poultry lead to an allergic reaction? In short, no. «There is no evidence to support that theory. Most dogs seem beautiful adaptable to a range of foods,» says Shmalberg.

What ingredient in cat food causes allergies

The age or sex of the dog also appears to own no relevance to food allergies or intolerances. Some vets do report that food allergies own been found in dogs less than 1 year ancient. So even young puppies can be affected (whereas they typically aren’t as susceptible to environmental allergies at this age).

Here are the top 10 breeds most frequently d along with the term «food allergies» or «dog food allergies»:

  • Shih Tzus
  • Bulldogs
  • Pitbulls
  • German Shepherds
  • Westies (aka West Highland White Terriers)
  • Cocker Spaniels
  • Golden Retrievers
  • Pugs
  • Dachshunds
  • Yorkies (aka Yorkshire Terriers)

Keep in mind, food allergies can happen in any breed, and, of course, some breeds may be searched more frequently just because they’re more favorite in general.

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Keep in mind, food allergies can happen in any breed, and, of course, some breeds may be searched more frequently just because they’re more favorite in general.

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Most Common Dog Food Allergens

Wondering what is in dog food that causes allergies?

«Meat, dairy, and eggs are often thought to be the most common dog food allergens,» says Shmalberg. «Yet generally, it’s the protein part of those foods that tend to be problematic, rather than, tell, the meat itself.» Hold in mind, veggies can contain protein, so they’re not automatically safe.

That same review BMC Veterinary Research identified some of the most frequently reported dog food allergens involved in adverse food reactions.

Here’s a glance, from most-reported to least-reported.

Top Dog Food Allergens (source: BMC Veterinary Research)

Dog Food Allergen Percentage of Dogs With Reported Reaction
Beef 34%
Dairy Products 17%
Chicken 15%
Wheat 13%
Soy 6%
Lamb 5%
Corn 4%
Egg 4%
Pork 2%
Fish 2%
Rice 2%

Shmalberg calls out two significant caveats to hold in mind here.

  • Look out for gelatin.

    Supplemental oils often come in gelatin capsules, and that gelatin can trigger allergies in some dogs.

  • The more common a food is, the more likely the allergy. «For an allergy to a food to develop, a dog needs to be exposed to that food,» says Shmalberg. «That may explain why the proteins most commonly found in dog food, love beef and chicken, drop higher on the list.»
  • With fats, purity matters. Pure fats, love a pure fish oil, are free of protein and shouldn’t trigger a response. But traces of protein can sneak into oils and fats during processing, and in a highly allergic dog, cause issues.
  • Starches are safer. Pure carbohydrates, aka starches, are beautiful low in or free of protein, which means dogs generally aren’t allergic to them.

    There are exceptions: while potato starch is probably safe, whole potatoes might cause an allergy because they contain proteins. Same goes for higher-protein grains love corn and wheat. But overall, grain allergies are much less common than meat allergies.

  • Where there’s one allergy, there may be more. It’s estimated that more than a third of dogs with one food allergy are allergic to at least one additional food.
  • No two foods are exactly the same. There’s not a excellent deal of evidence to propose that a dog who has a reaction to one food it is going to react to a similar food.

    That is, a dog allergic to chicken won’t necessarily be allergic to turkey.

  • Watch for additives. Chemicals, preservatives, colorants, and flavorants aren’t likely to cause a true allergy, but they could trigger an adverse reaction or intolerance symptoms.
  • Peanut allergies are rare in dogs. And if they do happen, they typically aren’t of the severity reported in some humans. Excellent news if your pup is one of the numerous who love a PB treat!
  • Newer research is needed. Numerous of the studies out there, and those sourced in this review, are older, when dog foods were being made and processed differently than they are today.

    Allergies tend to change over time along with foods, and as new studies emerge, we may see diverse allergens rising to the top of the list.

  • Food labels don’t always tell the whole tale. Some non-fresh kibble and canned foods own tested positive for proteins even when they’re not listed on the label.

More facts about dog food allergens that are helpful to know:

  1. Watch for additives. Chemicals, preservatives, colorants, and flavorants aren’t likely to cause a true allergy, but they could trigger an adverse reaction or intolerance symptoms.
  2. Starches are safer. Pure carbohydrates, aka starches, are beautiful low in or free of protein, which means dogs generally aren’t allergic to them.

    There are exceptions: while potato starch is probably safe, whole potatoes might cause an allergy because they contain proteins. Same goes for higher-protein grains love corn and wheat. But overall, grain allergies are much less common than meat allergies.

  3. Peanut allergies are rare in dogs. And if they do happen, they typically aren’t of the severity reported in some humans. Excellent news if your pup is one of the numerous who love a PB treat!
  4. With fats, purity matters.

    Pure fats, love a pure fish oil, are free of protein and shouldn’t trigger a response. But traces of protein can sneak into oils and fats during processing, and in a highly allergic dog, cause issues.

  5. No two foods are exactly the same. There’s not a excellent deal of evidence to propose that a dog who has a reaction to one food it is going to react to a similar food. That is, a dog allergic to chicken won’t necessarily be allergic to turkey.
  6. Look out for gelatin. Supplemental oils often come in gelatin capsules, and that gelatin can trigger allergies in some dogs.
  7. Where there’s one allergy, there may be more.

    It’s estimated that more than a third of dogs with one food allergy are allergic to at least one additional food.

  8. Food labels don’t always tell the whole tale. Some non-fresh kibble and canned foods own tested positive for proteins even when they’re not listed on the label.

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More facts about dog food allergens that are helpful to know:

  1. Watch for additives. Chemicals, preservatives, colorants, and flavorants aren’t likely to cause a true allergy, but they could trigger an adverse reaction or intolerance symptoms.
  2. Starches are safer. Pure carbohydrates, aka starches, are beautiful low in or free of protein, which means dogs generally aren’t allergic to them.

    There are exceptions: while potato starch is probably safe, whole potatoes might cause an allergy because they contain proteins. Same goes for higher-protein grains love corn and wheat. But overall, grain allergies are much less common than meat allergies.

  3. Peanut allergies are rare in dogs. And if they do happen, they typically aren’t of the severity reported in some humans. Excellent news if your pup is one of the numerous who love a PB treat!
  4. With fats, purity matters. Pure fats, love a pure fish oil, are free of protein and shouldn’t trigger a response.

    But traces of protein can sneak into oils and fats during processing, and in a highly allergic dog, cause issues.

  5. No two foods are exactly the same. There’s not a excellent deal of evidence to propose that a dog who has a reaction to one food it is going to react to a similar food. That is, a dog allergic to chicken won’t necessarily be allergic to turkey.
  6. Look out for gelatin. Supplemental oils often come in gelatin capsules, and that gelatin can trigger allergies in some dogs.
  7. Where there’s one allergy, there may be more. It’s estimated that more than a third of dogs with one food allergy are allergic to at least one additional food.

  8. Food labels don’t always tell the whole tale. Some non-fresh kibble and canned foods own tested positive for proteins even when they’re not listed on the label.

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Allergy identification and treatment

While it is possible to identify what type of symptoms the cat is suffering from, it is best to seek attention from a veterinarian to identify the best treatment possible. In order to identify to which allergens the cat is allergic, veterinarians will commonly use a serum allergy test.

Veterinarians will often recommend over the counter allergy relief products to alleviate mild problems. If the allergy is more severe, allergy immunotherapy may be recommended.[citation needed]


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