What do you take for ragweed allergies

Ragweeds are annual and perennial herbs and shrubs. Species may grow just a few centimeters tall or well exceed four meters in height. The stems are erect, decumbent or prostrate, and numerous grow from rhizomes. The leaves may be arranged alternately, oppositely, or both. The leaf blades come in numerous shapes, sometimes divided pinnately or palmately into lobes. The edges are smooth or toothed.

What do you take for ragweed allergies

Some are hairy, and most are glandular.[2]

Ragweeds are monoecious, most producing inflorescences that contain both staminate and pistillate flowers. Inflorescences are often in the form of a spike or raceme made up mostly of staminate flowers with some pistillate clusters around the base. Staminate flower heads own stamens surrounded by whitish or purplish florets. Pistillate flower heads own fruit-yielding ovules surrounded by numerous phyllaries and fewer, smaller florets.[2] The pistillate flowers are wind pollinated,[8][9] and the fruits develop.

They are burs, sometimes adorned with knobs, wings, or spines.[2]

Many Ambrosia species happen in desert and semi-desert areas, and numerous are ruderal species that grow in disturbed habitat types.[3]


Species

There are about 50 species in genus Ambrosia. Species include:[29]

  1. Ambrosia diversifolia(Piper) Rydb.
  2. Ambrosia divaricata(Brandegee) Payne
  3. Ambrosia camphorata(Greene) W.W.Payne
  4. Ambrosia × helenaeRouleau – Helen ragweed
  5. Ambrosia hispidaPursh – coastal ragweed
  6. Ambrosia salsola(Torr.

    & A. Gray) Strother & B.G. Baldwin

  7. Ambrosia pumila(Nutt.) A.Gray – dwarf bur ragweed, San Diego ambrosia
  8. Ambrosia psilostachyaDC. – Cuman ragweed, western ragweed, perennial ragweed
  9. Ambrosia linearis(Rydb.) W.W.Payne – streaked bur ragweed
  10. Ambrosia cordifolia(A.Gray) W.W.Payne – Tucson bur ragweed, heartleaf bursage
  11. Ambrosia confertifloraDC. – weakleaf bur ragweed
  12. Ambrosia grayi(A.Nelson) Shinners – woollyleaf bur ragweed, lagoonweed
  13. Ambrosia trifidaL. – grand ragweed, giant ragweed
  14. Ambrosia cheiranthifoliaA.Gray – Rio Grande ragweed, South Texas ambrosia
  15. Ambrosia pannosaW.W.Payne
  16. Ambrosia chamissonis(Less.) Greene – silver burr ragweed, beach-bur
  17. Ambrosia scabraHook.

    & Arn.

  18. Ambrosia acanthicarpaHook. – flatspine bur ragweed, annual bursage, sand bursage
  19. Ambrosia artemisioidesMeyen & Walp.
  20. Ambrosia artemisiifoliaL. – common ragweed, short ragweed, Roman wormwood
  21. Ambrosia carduacea(Greene) W.W.Payne
  22. Ambrosia nivea(B.L.Rob. & Fernald) W.W.Payne
  23. Ambrosia × intergradiensW.H.Wagner – intergrading ragweed
  24. Ambrosia tenuifoliaSpreng. – slimleaf bur ragweed, lacy ambrosia
  25. Ambrosia maritimaL.
  26. Ambrosia eriocentra(A.Gray) W.W.Payne – woolly fruit bur ragweed, hollyleaf bursage
  27. Ambrosia × platyspina(Seaman) Strother & B.G.Baldwin
  28. Ambrosia microcephalaDC.
  29. Ambrosia flexuosa(A.Gray) W.W.Payne
  30. Ambrosia magdalenae(Brandegee) W.W.Payne
  31. Ambrosia dumosa(A.Gray) W.W.Payne – burrobush, white bursage
  32. Ambrosia deltoidea(Torr.) W.W.Payne – triangle bur ragweed, triangle bursage
  33. Ambrosia bidentataMichx. – lanceleaf ragweed, southern ragweed
  34. Ambrosia tacorensisMeyen
  35. Ambrosia ilicifolia(A.Gray) W.W.Payne – hollyleaf bur ragweed
  36. Ambrosia acuminata(Brandegee) W.W.Payne
  37. Ambrosia chenopodiifolia(Benth.) W.W.Payne – San Diego bur ragweed, San Diego bursage
  38. Ambrosia tomentosaNutt. – skeletonleaf bur ragweed
  39. Ambrosia arborescensMill. – marko, altamisa
  40. Ambrosia humiLeón de la Luz & Rebman[3]
  41. Ambrosia tarapacanaPhil.
  42. Ambrosia bryantii(Curran) Payne
  43. Ambrosia polystachyaDC.
  44. Ambrosia monogyra(Torr.

    & A.Gray) Strother & B.G.Baldwin – singlewhorl burrobrush

  45. Ambrosia dentata(Cabrera) M.O.Dillon
  46. Ambrosia johnstoniorumHenrickson
  47. Ambrosia canescensA.Gray – hairy ragweed
  48. Ambrosia peruvianaWilld. – ragweed, altamisa
  49. Ambrosia ambrosioides(Cav.) W.W.Payne – ambrosia-leaf bur ragweed, large bursage, ambrosia bursage
  50. Ambrosia velutinaO.E.Schulz
  51. Ambrosia villosissimaForssk.


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ambrosia.
  • ^Dahl, Åslög; Strandhede, Sven-Olov; Wihl, Jan-Ålxe (1999).

    Aerobiologia. 15 (4): 293–297. doi:10.1023/A:1007678107552.

  • ^Rees, A. M. Consumer Health USA: Essential Information from the Federal Health Network 2nd ed. Volume 2. Westwood, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1997. pg. 32. ISBN 1-57356-068-5 «Each ragweed plant produces about one billion pollen grains during an average allergy season».
  • ^Ambrosia.

    What do you take for ragweed allergies

    Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).

  • ^Kiss, L. «Spread of Common Ragweed in Europe: An Example for Biological Invasion Caused by an Alien Weed Introduced to a New Environment». In: Vincent, C., et al. Biological Control: A Global Perspective. Wallingford, Oxon.: CABI. 2007. pg. 81. ISBN 1-84593-265-X
  • ^Kiss pp. 81–82
  • ^ITIS
  • ^Kiss, pp. 83–89.
  • ^ abLewis, Alan J. (1973). «Ragweed Control Techniques: Effect on Old-Field Plant Populations».

    Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 100 (6): 333–8. doi:10.2307/2484099. JSTOR 2484099.

  • ^Wopfner, Nicole; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Egger, Matthias; Asero, Riccardo; Ebner, Christof; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Ferreira, Fatima (2005). «The Spectrum of Allergens in Ragweed and Mugwort Pollen». International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 138 (4): 337–46. doi:10.1159/000089188. PMID 16254437.
  • ^Genus Ambrosia. Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum.
  • ^ abTaramarcaz, P.; et al. (2005).

    «Ragweed (Ambrosia) progression and its health risks: will Switzerland resist this invasion?»(PDF).

    What do you take for ragweed allergies

    Swiss Medical Weekly. 135 (37/38): 538–48.

  • ^Rees p. 32
  • ^W.

    What do you take for ragweed allergies

    A. Palmer and R. D. Goeden The Host Range of Ophraella communa Lesage (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

  • ^Ambrosia. The Jepson eFlora 2013.
  • ^A. Davis, K. Renner, C. Sprague, L. Dyer, D. Mutch (2005). Integrated Weed Management. MSU.
  • ^Rasmussen, Karen; Thyrring, Jakob; Muscarella, Robert; Borchsenius, Finn (16 March 2017). «Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health».

    PeerJ. 5: e3104. doi:10.7717/peerj.3104. PMC 5357339. PMID 28321366.

  • ^Stephen B Powles (April 2008). «Evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds around the world: lessons to be learnt». Pest Management Science Pest Management Science.

    What do you take for ragweed allergies

    64 (4): 360–365. doi:10.1002/ps.1525. PMID 18273881.

  • ^«Global Compositae Checklist». Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  • ^ abcLeón de la Luz, José Luis; Rebman, Jon P. (June 2010). «A new Ambrosia (Asteraceae) from the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico». Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México.

    What do you take for ragweed allergies

    86 (6): 65–70.

  • ^Payne, Willard W. (October 1963). «The Morphology of the Inflorescence of Ragweeds (Ambrosia-Franseria: Compositae)»(PDF).

    What do you take for ragweed allergies

    American Journal of Botany. 50 (9): 872–80. doi:10.2307/2439774. hdl:2027.42/141142. JSTOR 2439774.

  • ^Samter, M. and D. W. Talmage.

    What do you take for ragweed allergies

    Immunological Diseases 3rd ed. Volume 2. Boston: Little Brown. 1978. pg. 788. ISBN 0-316-76985-1 «It is estimated that a single plant produces 1 billion shafts of pollen, or that 1 square mile of ragweed plants produces 16 tons of pollen».

  • ^Moingeon, P.; Batard, T.; Fadel, R.; Frati, F.; Sieber, J.; Overtvelt, L. (2006). «Immune mechanisms of allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy». Allergy. 61 (2): 151–65. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006.01002.x. PMID 16409190.
  • ^Owen, Judith (2013). Immunology. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.

    p. 493. ISBN .

  • ^Shiyake S., Moriya S., Expansion of Ophraella communa LeSage in east Asia, in Insect Nat., vol. 40, 2005, pp. 11-13.
  • ^ abcOral Allergy Syndrome. Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
  • ^Barnes, Charles; Pacheco, Freddy; Landuyt, Julie; Hu, Frank; Portnoy, Jay (2001). «Hourly variation of airborne ragweed pollen in Kansas City». Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 86 (2): 166–71. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)62686-5. PMID 11258685.
  • ^H Müller-Schärer, S T E Lommen, M Rossinelli, M Bonini, M Boriani, G Bosio, U Schaffner: Ophraella communa, the ragweed leaf beetle, has successfully landed in Europe: fortunate coincidence or threat? 25 January 2014, doi:10.1111/wre.12072.
  • ^ abcdefAmbrosia.

    Flora of North America.

  • ^Ambrosia. The Plant List.

Itchy eyes, a congested nose, sneezing, wheezing and hives: these are symptoms of an allergic reaction caused when plants release pollen into the air, generally in the spring or drop. Numerous people use hay fever as a colloquial term for these seasonal allergies and the inflammation of the nose and airways.

But hay fever is a misnomer, said Dr.

Jordan Josephson, an ear, nose and throat doctor and sinus specialist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.

«It is not an allergy to hay,» Josephson, author of the book «Sinus Relief Now» (Perigee Trade, 2006), told Live Science. «Rather, it is an allergy to weeds that pollinate.»

Doctors and researchers prefer the phrase allergic rhinitis to describe the condition. More than 50 million people experience some type of allergy each year, according to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. In 2017, 8.1% of adults and 7.7% of children reported own allergic rhinitis symptoms, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Worldwide, between 10 and 30% of people are affected by allergic rhinitis, Josephson said.

In 2019, spring arrived early in some parts of the country and later in others, according to the National Phenology Network (NPN). Spring brings blooming plants and, for some, lots of sneezing, itchy, watery eyes and runny noses. According to NPN data, spring reared its head about two weeks early in areas of California, Nevada and numerous of the Southern and Southeastern states. Much of California, for example, is preparing for a brutal allergy season due to the large quantity of winter rain. On the other hand, spring ranged from about one to two weeks tardy in the Northwest, the Midwest and the Mid-Atlantic U.S.

[Watch a Massive ‘Pollen Cloud’ Explode from Late-Blooming Tree]

Itchy eyes, a congested nose, sneezing, wheezing and hives: these are symptoms of an allergic reaction caused when plants release pollen into the air, generally in the spring or drop. Numerous people use hay fever as a colloquial term for these seasonal allergies and the inflammation of the nose and airways.

But hay fever is a misnomer, said Dr. Jordan Josephson, an ear, nose and throat doctor and sinus specialist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.

«It is not an allergy to hay,» Josephson, author of the book «Sinus Relief Now» (Perigee Trade, 2006), told Live Science.

«Rather, it is an allergy to weeds that pollinate.»

Doctors and researchers prefer the phrase allergic rhinitis to describe the condition. More than 50 million people experience some type of allergy each year, according to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. In 2017, 8.1% of adults and 7.7% of children reported own allergic rhinitis symptoms, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Worldwide, between 10 and 30% of people are affected by allergic rhinitis, Josephson said.

In 2019, spring arrived early in some parts of the country and later in others, according to the National Phenology Network (NPN).

Spring brings blooming plants and, for some, lots of sneezing, itchy, watery eyes and runny noses. According to NPN data, spring reared its head about two weeks early in areas of California, Nevada and numerous of the Southern and Southeastern states. Much of California, for example, is preparing for a brutal allergy season due to the large quantity of winter rain. On the other hand, spring ranged from about one to two weeks tardy in the Northwest, the Midwest and the Mid-Atlantic U.S. [Watch a Massive ‘Pollen Cloud’ Explode from Late-Blooming Tree]


Allergy

Ragweed pollen is a common allergen. A single plant may produce about a billion grains of pollen per season,[10][11] and the pollen is transported on the wind.

It causes about half of every cases of pollen-associated allergic rhinitis in North America, where ragweeds are most abundant and diverse.[7] Common culprits are common ragweed (A. artemisiifolia) and grand ragweed (A. trifida).[12]

Concentration of ragweed pollen—in the absence of significant rainfall, which removes pollen from the air—is the lowest in the early morning hours (6:00 AM), when emissions starts, and pollen concentration peaks at midday.[13] Ragweed pollen can remain airborne for days and travel grand distances, affecting people hundreds of miles away.

It can even be carried 300 to 400 miles (640 km) out to sea.[14] Ragweeds native to the Americas own been introduced to Europe starting in the nineteenth century and especially during World War I, and own spread rapidly there since the 1950s.[15] Eastern Europe, particularly Hungary, has been badly affected by ragweed since the early 1990s, when the dismantling of Communist collective agriculture led to large-scale abandonment of agricultural land, and new building projects also resulted in disturbed, un-landscaped acreage.[16]

The major allergenic compound in the pollen has been identified as Amb a 1, a 38 kDa nonglycosylated protein composed of two subunits.

It also contains other allergenic components, such as profilin and calcium-binding proteins.[17]

Ragweed allergy sufferers may show signs of oral allergy syndrome, a food allergy classified by a cluster of allergic reactions in the mouth in response to the consumption certain fruits, vegetables, and nuts.[18] Foods commonly involved include beans, celery, cumin, hazelnuts, kiwifruit, parsley, potatoes, bananas, melons, cucumbers, and zucchini. Because cooking generally denatures the proteins that cause the reaction, the foods are more allergenic when eaten raw; exceptions are celery and nuts, which may not be safe even when cooked.[18] Signs of reaction can include itching, burning, and swelling of the mouth and throat, runny eyes and nose, hives, and, less commonly, vomiting, diarrhea, asthma, and anaphylaxis.[18] These symptoms are due to the abnormal increase of IgE antibodies which attach to a type of immune cell called mast cells.

When the ragweed antigen then attaches to these antibodies the mast cells release histamine and other symptom evoking chemicals.[19]

Merck & Co, under license from allergy immunotherapy (AIT) company ALK, has launched a ragweed allergy immunotherapy treatment in sublingual tablet form in the US and Canada. Allergy immunotherapy treatment involves istering doses of the allergen to accustom the body to induce specific long-term tolerance.[20]


Symptoms

The symptoms of allergic rhinitis may at first feel love those of a freezing. But unlike a freezing that may incubate before causing discomfort, symptoms of allergies generally appear almost as soon as a person encounters an allergen, such as pollen or mold.

Symptoms include itchy eyes, ears, nose or throat, sneezing, irritability, nasal congestion and hoarseness.

People may also experience cough, postnasal drip, sinus pressure or headaches, decreased sense of smell, snoring, sleep apnea, fatigue and asthma, Josephson said. [Oral Allergy Syndrome: 6 Ways to Avoid an Itchy, Tingling Mouth]

Many of these symptoms are the immune system’s overreaction as it attempts to protect the vital and sensitive respiratory system from exterior invaders. The antibodies produced by the body hold the foreign invaders out, but also cause the symptoms characteristic of allergic responses.

People can develop hay fever at any age, but most people are diagnosed with the disorder in childhood or early adulthood, according to the Mayo Clinic. Symptoms typically become less severe as people age.

Often, children may first experience food allergies and eczema, or itchy skin, before developing hay fever, Josephson said.

«This then worsens over the years, and patients then develop allergies to indoor allergens love dust and animals, or seasonal rhinitis, love ragweed, grass pollen, molds and tree pollen.»

Hay fever can also lead to other medical conditions. People who are allergic to weeds are more likely to get other allergies and develop asthma as they age, Josephson said. But those who get immunotherapy, such as allergy shots that assist people’s bodies get used to allergens, are less likely to develop asthma, he said.


Control and eradication

Chemical spraying has been used for control in large areas. Because ragweed only reacts to some of the more aggressive herbicides, it is highly recommended to consult professionals when deciding on dosage and methodology, especially near urban areas.[by whom?] Effective athletic ingredients include those that are glyphosate-based (Roundup, Glyphogan, Glialka), sulfosate-based (Medallon), and glufosinate ammonium-based (Finale 14SL).

In badly infested areas, 2 to 6.5 liters per hectare (0.2–0.7 U.S. gal/acre) are generally dispersed.[21] In 2007 several Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations were glyphosate resistant, exclusively in the USA.[22]

Where herbicides cannot be used, mowing may be repeated about every three weeks, as it grows back rapidly. In the past, ragweed was generally cut below, left to dry, and then burned.[23] This method is used less often now, because of the pollution caused by smoke.

Manually uprooting ragweed is generally ineffective, and skin contact can cause allergic reaction. If uprooting is the method of choice, it should be performed before flowering. There is evidence that mechanical and chemical control methods are actually no more effective in the endless run than leaving the weed in place.[23]

Fungal rusts and the leaf-eating beetle Ophraella communa own been proposed as agents of biological pest control of ragweeds, but the latter may also attack sunflowers, and applications for permits and funding to test these controls own been unsuccessful.[24] The beetle has, however, appeared in Europe, either on its own or as an uncontrolled introduction, and it has started making a dent into Ambrosia populations there.[25][26][27][28]


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