What are winter allergies caused by

The symptoms of allergic rhinitis may at first feel love those of a freezing. But unlike a freezing that may incubate before causing discomfort, symptoms of allergies generally appear almost as soon as a person encounters an allergen, such as pollen or mold.

Symptoms include itchy eyes, ears, nose or throat, sneezing, irritability, nasal congestion and hoarseness. People may also experience cough, postnasal drip, sinus pressure or headaches, decreased sense of smell, snoring, sleep apnea, fatigue and asthma, Josephson said.

[Oral Allergy Syndrome: 6 Ways to Avoid an Itchy, Tingling Mouth]

Many of these symptoms are the immune system’s overreaction as it attempts to protect the vital and sensitive respiratory system from exterior invaders. The antibodies produced by the body hold the foreign invaders out, but also cause the symptoms characteristic of allergic responses.

People can develop hay fever at any age, but most people are diagnosed with the disorder in childhood or early adulthood, according to the Mayo Clinic. Symptoms typically become less severe as people age.

Often, children may first experience food allergies and eczema, or itchy skin, before developing hay fever, Josephson said.

«This then worsens over the years, and patients then develop allergies to indoor allergens love dust and animals, or seasonal rhinitis, love ragweed, grass pollen, molds and tree pollen.»

Hay fever can also lead to other medical conditions.

What are winter allergies caused by

People who are allergic to weeds are more likely to get other allergies and develop asthma as they age, Josephson said. But those who get immunotherapy, such as allergy shots that assist people’s bodies get used to allergens, are less likely to develop asthma, he said.

Hay fever treatments

Dr. Sarita Patil, an allergist with Massachusetts General Hospital’s Allergy Associates in Boston, talked to Live Science about strategies for outdoor lovers with seasonal allergies.

Patil suggested figuring out exactly what type of pollen you’re allergic to, and then avoiding planning outdoor activities during peak pollinating times in the months when those plants are in bloom.

Numerous grasses, for example, typically pollinate in tardy spring and early summer and release most of their spores in the afternoon and early evening.

Her other strategies: Be capable to identify the pollen perpetrator by sight; monitor pollen counts before scheduling outdoor time; go exterior at a time of day when the plants that make you go achoo are not pollinating; and wear protective gear love sunglasses, among other tips. [7 Strategies for Outdoor Lovers with Seasonal Allergies]

Allergy sufferers may also select to combat symptoms with medication designed to shut below or trick the immune sensitivity in the body.

What are winter allergies caused by

Whether over-the-counter or prescription, most allergy pills work by releasing chemicals into the body that bind naturally to histamine — the protein that reacts to the allergen and causes an immune response — negating the protein’s effect.

Other allergy remedies attack the symptoms at the source. Nasal sprays contain athletic ingredients that decongest by soothing irritated blood vessels in the nose, while eye drops both moisturize and reduce inflammation. Doctors may also prescribe allergy shots, Josephson said.

For kids, allergy medications are tricky.

A 2017 nationally representative poll of parents with kids between ages 6 and 12 found that 21% of parents said they had trouble figuring out the correct dose of allergy meds for their child; 15% of parents gave a kid an adult form of the allergy medicine, and 33% of these parents also gave their kid the adult dose of that medicine.

Doctors may also recommend allergy shots, a neti pot that can rinse the sinuses, or a Grossan Hydropulse — an irrigating system that cleans the nose of pollens, infection and environmental irritants, Josephson said.

Alternative and holistic options, along with acupuncture, may also assist people with hay fever, Josephson said.

People can also avoid pollen by keeping their windows closed in the spring, and by using air purifiers and air conditioners at home.

Probiotics may also be helpful in stopping those itchy eyes and runny noses. A 2015 review published in the journal International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology found that people who suffer from hay fever may benefit from using probiotics, or «good bacteria,» thought to promote a healthy gut. Although the jury is still out on whether probiotics are an effective treatment for seasonal allergies, the researchers noted that these gut bacteria could hold the body’s immune system from flaring up in response to allergens — something that could reduce allergy symptoms.

[5 Myths About Probiotics]

Additional resources:

This article was updated on April 30, 2019, by Live Science Contributor Rachel Ross.

Like people, our feline friends can develop allergies. This happens when their immune systems become sensitive to substances present in their surroundings. Known as allergens, these irritating substances may not annoy you or other animals in your home, but as your cat’s body tries to get rid of the offending substances, he might show every kinds of symptoms.

Because there is such a wide variety of allergens, cat allergies are generally divided into 3 main categories: flea allergy, environmental allergies (atopic dermatitis), and food allergy.

Flea allergy and environmental allergies – the ones that cause “hay fever” symptoms in humans – are the most common. However, cats often own multiple allergies, so a thorough examination by your veterinarian or veterinary dermatologist is recommended.

Allergic kitties are often extremely itchy and own skin problems associated with allergic dermatitis. They also might exhibit some of these symptoms:

  1. Itchy, runny eyes
  2. Ear infections
  3. Vomiting or diarrhea
  4. Snoring caused by an inflamed throat
  5. Sneezing, coughing, and wheezing – especially if the cat has asthma
  6. Paw chewing or swollen, sensitive paws

There are a variety of allergens that cause these symptoms:

  1. Food
  2. Perfumes and colognes
  3. Fleas or flea-control products
  4. Household cleaning products
  5. Pollen, grass, plants, mold, mildew, and other organic substances
  6. Prescription drugs
  7. Some cat litters

Gastrointestinal symptoms generally accompany a food allergy, so it is significant to avoid feeding your cat food to which he or she has a known allergy.

Also, allergies tend to be more common among outdoor cats because they are exposed to a wider range of potential allergens, especially from plants and organic matter.

If something appears to be making your kitty miserable, the best thing to do is pay your veterinarian a visit. He or she will initially do a finish history and physical exam for your cat to determine the source of the allergies.

If your vet suspects your cat has allergies, he might desire to act out blood tests or experiment with your kitty’s diet to narrow below the cause. Or, if your vet thinks your cat has a skin allergy, your cat might be referred to a veterinary dermatologist.

Treatment & Prevention
The best way to treat your cat’s allergies is to remove the allergens from his or her environment. For instance, if your cat’s allergies are caused by fleas, using veterinarian-recommended flea and tick preventatives can eliminate the cause. If the problem is cat litter, substituting your normal litter for a dust-free alternative could do the trick. In fact, this might assist correct a bigger problem if your cat’s been missing his or her litter box.

When it comes to pollen, fungus, mold, or dust, bathing your cat a couple of times per week can assist alleviate itching. Your veterinarian can recommend an appropriate shampoo to assist you avoid drying out your cat’s skin.

A diagnosis of food allergies may require you to provide your cat with a prescription diet or even home-cooked meals free of the offending allergens. Your veterinarian will provide recommendations as to the best course of action. It is possible that your cat will need dietary supplements to ensure he gets every the vital nutrients he needs.

Medication is sometimes prescribed for cats in case certain allergens cannot be removed from the environment. Medications include:

  1. Cortisone, steroids or allergy injections for airborne pollens
  2. Antihistamines as a preventative
  3. Flea prevention products

How do allergies affect asthma?
If your cat is allergic to environmental pollutants, it may worsen your cat’s asthma.

In this case, your vet may prescribe medications that open your cat’s airway for the short-term; endless term solutions include corticosteroids. And here’s a excellent reminder: cigarette smoke is bad for your cat, especially if your cat has asthma.

If you own any questions or concerns, you should always visit or call your veterinarian – they are your best resource to ensure the health and well-being of your pets.

Treatment Options for Winter Allergy Symptoms

To treat allergy symptoms, Jones cautions against older over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, which, he says, can do more harm than good.

«Some of these drugs own too numerous side effects,» he notes, «and people don’t really understand how to match their symptoms to the product.

They just know they feel bad and desire to feel better.»

For example, some OTC allergy drugs contain decongestants, like pseudoephedrine, which can lift a user’s heart rate. The athletic ingredient in the antihistamine Benadryl — diphenhydramine — causes some tissues to dry out and promotes urinary retention, Jones says. «So people with prostate problems, who may own trouble urinating, discover that that condition worsens when they take diphenhydramine.»

Jones says that better options are decongestants that contain loratadine (such as Claritin) and cetirizine (like Zyrtec), two drugs that moved from prescription to OTC status in recent years.

Prescription steroid nasal sprays (some of which are also now available over-the-counter) tend to be more effective than antihistamine tablets, adds Rank, though individual responses vary and the two types of drugs are often used in combination.

Talk to your doctor and your pharmacist before taking any over-the-counter medication, to discuss whether it’s appropriate for your symptoms and potential side effects.

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology notes that if you own a pet allergy, you might consider immunotherapy ­— allergy shots or tablets — that can potentially desensitize you to the allergen and provide lasting relief. (4)

Symptoms and Remedies for Cedar Fever

January 17, 2020

As ironic as it sounds, cedar fever does not actually produce a fever.  In fact, cedar fever is a seasonal allergy brought on by an allergic reaction to the pollen from mountain cedar trees.

Mountain cedar grows naturally and is the most allergenic tree in Central Texas.

Cedar Fever Symptoms

An allergic reaction to mountain cedar causes numerous symptoms that aggravate those affected. A few of those symptoms include runny nose, itchy and watery eyes, nasal blockage and sneezing. Some suffers also complain of fatigue, mild headache, facial discomfort, sore throat, partial loss of smell and the sensation of ear plugging. Cedar fever is a seasonal illness that affects people during pollination. While cedar fever doesn’t actually cause a fever, the inflammation triggered by the allergic reaction may slightly lift your temperature.

The little, light pollen granules can travel hundreds of miles, causing the pollen to spread and be inhaled by allergy sufferers.

After pollen inhalation occurs, the allergic reaction begins to affect an individual.

What are winter allergies caused by

In general, allergies are caused by an oversensitive immune system that increases the immune response to protect the body. Typically this necessary immune response protects against harmful chemicals, bacteria and viruses, but in the case of an allergic reaction the immune response is actually unnecessary.

Cedar allergies affect numerous people from November through March, but the heaviest times of pollination happen in December, January and February. While most people can’t hide from the pollen completely, there are steps you can take to minimize your exposure even when you are indoors.

Indoor Remedies

  1. Dust your home with a damp cloth, and vacuum carpets with a vacuum equipped with a HEPA filter each week.
  2. Bathe pets often, even if they live indoors.
  3. Change your air conditioning filter often.

    You may desire to use a HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter to assist filtrate the pollen even more.

  4. Take a shower and change your clothes after being outdoors for a endless period of time. This will protect you from pollen that lands on your clothes and in your hair.
  5. Keep your doors and windows closed. Run the air conditioner when the pollen is extremely high.
  6. Eliminate cedar trees in your yard by replacing them with excellent hardwoods love elm, ash, or oak.

OTC Remedies

  1. Over-the-counter antihistamines or decongestants in pill, spray or eye drop form may assist control symptoms.
  2. Nasal irrigation is a drug-free remedy, a commercial squeeze bottle, bulb syringe or neti pot can be used to pour saline solution into the nasal passages and wash out the allergens and excess mucus.

    To fill a syringe or neti pot, patients should stir two cups of sterilized warm water with ¼ teaspoon of salt.

Prescription Remedies

  1. For those with more persistent allergy symptoms, prescription formulas of OTC drugs final longer and may be more effective.
  2. Doctors can also prescribe oral or nasal corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory drugs.

Take allergy medicines exactly as prescribed. If you know cedar will be a problem for you each winter, see your doctor in early drop to update your treatment plan and stock up on prescription allergy medications.

A long-range series of allergy shots may also be prescribed if other remedies do not provide relief.

Regardless of your allergy regimen, cedar fever is a seasonal allergy and sooner than later the irritants that plaque you will be gone for a while and mom nature will provide a bit of relief.

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Until the 21st century, the worst a coronavirus, a large family of viruses capable of infecting humans and animals, could do to humans was to deliver the common cold—annoying but hardly sinister.

But three times so far in the 21st century, novel coronaviruses own emerged that could potentially cause a deadly pandemic—SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) in 2003, MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) in 2012, and now 2019-nCoV emanating from Wuhan, China. As of Jan. 26, the new coronavirus has reportedly infected at least 2,463 people and caused at least 80 deaths. Those numbers are certain to mushroom.

Controlling the spread of the virus requires both public health and medical measures—and for that we need a clear clinical profile.

At this stage, that information is only just being put together, but what we do own is disturbing.

So far, the limited clinical information coming out of China means we know only about the mid-to-worst-case outcomes—from moderate to life-threatening pneumonia. Two studies released on Jan. 24—one about 41 infected patients and the other on a family cluster of six separate from those 41—provide both clues and concerns.

The official tale is that this new coronavirus emerged from a Wuhan wet market, where live animals that would never normally meet in the wild live side by side, facilitating trans-species mutation of pathogens.

Yet the first three known cases from Dec. 1 and 2 were not linked to the market. Neither were 11 more cases of the 41 reviewed in the recent study. This early data suggests an evolving virus that surfaced considerably earlier. Undetected among the plethora of similar chest infections and common symptoms, it honed its capacity to spread from human to human. As happened with SARS, new corona may be mutating along the way, gradually becoming more virulent.

The coronavirus is a physically large virus—in relative terms, at just 125 nanometers with a surface of spike projections, too large to survive or stay suspended in the air for hours or travel more than a few feet.

Love influenza, this coronavirus spreads through both direct and indirect contact. Direct contact occurs through the physical transfer of the microorganism among friends and family through shut contact with oral secretions. Indirect contact results when an infected person coughs or sneezes, spreading coronavirus droplets on nearby surfaces, including knobs, bedrails, and smartphones.

As with SARS, droplets generated during medical procedures such as bronchoscopy and respiratory treatment may be aerosolized, infecting multiple medical staff and enabling super-spreading. Hand hygiene and personal protective barriers—gowns, gloves, masks, and goggles—reduce droplet transmission.

The incubation period, however, is unknown but currently extremely roughly estimated as between one and 14 days.

To complicate matters further, we do not know how easily the new coronavirus spreads. Can transmission take put before the onset of symptoms? (Measles, one of the most contagious diseases on Ground, is infectious two to four days beforehand.) Do people who never become symptomatic nonetheless spread the disease? Do symptomatic people become less contagious over time, love SARS, or is it love Ebola, which becomes increasingly contagious as the disease progresses?

These are every unanswered questions.

Like its siblings SARS and MERS, the new coronavirus causes pneumonia—the infection of one or both lungs. But that may be only one potential syndrome, which is one of the factors making it hard to spot. In fact, it probably causes a spectrum of disease, from asymptomatic to lethal.

What are winter allergies caused by

Even in deadly cases, new coronavirus infections start off much love numerous other less dangerous diseases. Initial symptoms are fever, dry cough, myalgia (muscle pain), and fatigue.

What are winter allergies caused by

Productive cough (a cough that produces phlegm) and headache are infrequent, hemoptysis (coughing up blood) and diarrhea occasional. It can take about a week before an infected person feels ill enough to seek medical care.

After this deceptively slow start, the disease progresses rapidly during the second week—in a similar fashion to SARS. Hypoxemia caused by increasing lung injury leads to difficulty breathing and the need for oxygen therapy.

What are winter allergies caused by

ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) is a common complication. Between 25 and 32 percent of cases are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for mechanical ventilation and sometimes ECMO (pumping blood through an artificial lung for oxygenation).

Other complications include septic shock, acute kidney injury, and virus-induced cardiac injury. The extensive lung damage also sets the lung up for secondary bacterial pneumonia, which occurs in 10 percent of ICU admissions. (This may also be the case for the Spanish flu of 1918, which killed 50 million people; the fatalities attributed to the viral influenza may be more because of the bacterial pneumonia that followed.)

Pneumonia from any cause severe enough to require ICU admission is associated with high morbidity and mortality.

Defined as an infection of one or both lungs, it was already considered an ancient disease in Hippocrates’s time. In 1881, pneumococcus—the main cause of bacterial pneumonia—was finally identified. Over the next century, medical advances and the development of antibiotics made treatment possible, honed by intensivists to reduce the mortality rate to single figures.

In contrast, because few respiratory viruses cause more than mild infection, adult intensive care physicians generally own relatively little experience with viral pneumonia. Yet infection by SARS, H1N1, and MERS can lead to severe pneumonitis, ARDS, and respiratory failure, possibly because of an exaggerated inflammatory reaction.

(Corticosteroids, the go-to anti-inflammatory drug, are ineffective and not recommended by the World Health Organization, or WHO.) The lack of effective antivirals and treatment options means viral pneumonia has a high mortality rate.

We do not know how lethal the new coronavirus is. While the single figures of deaths in early January seemed reassuring, the death toll has now climbed to above 3 percent. This may indicate better reporting—or the lethal lag time (the time for those infected to die). Another large unknown is the risk factors that would lead infection in a deadly direction. Certainly, some adults own compromised immune systems due to chronic illnesses.

Of these, 15 percent own died, with higher fatality rates among older patients and those with co-morbidities of diabetes, hypertension, or coronary artery disease. However, most patients with severe illness were healthy to start with, including a 30-year-old man who recently died.

Even trickier than treatment is detecting the virus. In quarantined Wuhan, dozens of fever clinics are singling out anyone with a fever of 99.1 degrees Fahrenheit or above—the cardinal sign for 98 percent of pneumonia cases—and then interviewing them about possible exposure to the coronavirus.

What are winter allergies caused by

In theory, this sounds reasonable.

In practice, it is the screening from hell. Early symptoms of fever and cough are clinically indistinguishable from the usual winter suspects, such as influenza, while fever is an undifferentiated sign, common to hundreds of noninfective diseases from allergies to arthritis. Even pregnancy elevates body temperature.

Because 110,000 people (about 1 percent of the population) in Wuhan might own a febrile illness at any given time, clinics, hospitals, and medical personnel are overwhelmed, short on lab tests and personal protective equipment. And as every those with a fever are detained until lab tests are back, nosocomial infection—transmission of disease in crowded clinics—becomes more likely.

Exit and entry screenings at international airports own been successful in picking up cases in Thailand and South Korea but own missed cases still incubating in the United States and Australia that were later detected in hospital after symptoms manifested.

More worrying is that several cases own been identified without a fever.

This includes detection of coronavirus in a 10-year-old girl who exhibited no symptoms at every. If the coronavirus can be spread before symptoms appear, it will greatly complicate screening efforts even beyond the inadequacies of the fever test.

One puzzling aspect so far is the grateful lack of kid victims. Generally, children, with less developed immune systems than adults, come below with one illness after another.

A particularly severe example is RSV viral pneumonia, which results in an estimated 118,200 kid deaths annually. (Adults are not seriously affected.)

Yet few children own yet been reported with coronavirus symptoms. That does not mean that no children own been infected. A similar pattern of benign disease in children, with increasing severity and mortality with age, was seen in SARS and MERS. SARS had a mortality rate averaging 10 percent. Yet no children, and just 1 percent of youths under 24, died, while those older than 50 had a 65 percent risk of dying.

Is being an adult a risk factor per se? If so, what is it about childhood that confers protection? It may be the nonspecific effects of live vaccines such as for measles and rubella, which already own been found to provide protection from diseases beyond their immediate target. That may also explain why more men than women own been infected by the coronavirus, because women routinely are given a rubella vaccine booster in their teens to guard against the dangers of having rubella while pregnant. While we wait for an accelerated coronavirus vaccine to be ready, could innate immunity in adults be boosted by giving measles vaccines?

The virus itself is not the only risk.

Fewer than half the patients hospitalized so far for the coronavirus ended up having the underlying disease. As hundreds more cases, numerous of them likely to be untrue positives, are picked up during aggressive screening, fewer patients can get adequate support care. This compounds the clinical and ethical burden on medics working 24-hour shifts, working alongside colleagues who then become patients and living in hospitals because they are unwilling to risk infecting their families by going home. The risk of hospitals themselves becoming sites of infection is considerable: In March 2003, it was the infection of scores of medical staff that led the WHO to declare a global alert for SARS.

This time, while only 16 medics are reported to own been infected, this is a likely underestimate—and the first case of a doctor dying from the virus has just been reported.

Fever clinics and screening are an exercise in clinical insanity, attempting to discern corona patients from every other common winter illness. Because there is no rapid diagnostic test, screening has focused on whether people own a fever, quickly overwhelming medical facilities until more time-consuming laboratory tests can be performed. Moreover, if nonsymptomatic people can spread the coronavirus, the focus on symptoms may be causing dangerous oversights.

The most powerful measures may be public education about the best ways to avoid infection, such as avoiding physical contact with people known to be infected, and to minimize spread from unidentified infections, wearing masks and hand hygiene.

China is taking these measures, with public health information broadcast through multiple means, from state-run television to the village loudspeakers that generally blare propaganda. These steps can protect everyone, including families as they care for members who come below with typical flulike symptoms and may not seem to require more intensive treatment for several days. A more targeted approach can also ensure that medical facilities can focus on the people who really need intensive care rather than the far greater numbers who may simply own a fever but are kept in effective detention until laboratory tests can clear them.

Any new deadly pathogen inevitably gives rise to panic.

But experience with other epidemics has shown us that a targeted approach can contain and arrest the spread of a virus—even more effectively than sweeping quarantines.

Annie Sparrow is an assistant professor of population health science and policy at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New [email protected]_sparrow

Tags: China, disease, science

More from Foreign Policy

By Taboola

Common allergens

The most common allergen is pollen, a powder released by trees, grasses and weeds that fertilize the seeds of neighboring plants. As plants rely on the wind to do the work for them, the pollination season sees billions of microscopic particles fill the air, and some of them finish up in people’s noses and mouths.

Spring bloomers include ash, birch, cedar, elm and maple trees, plus numerous species of grass.

Weeds pollinate in the tardy summer and drop, with ragweed being the most volatile.

The pollen that sits on brightly colored flowers is rarely responsible for hay fever because it is heavier and falls to the ground rather than becoming airborne. Bees and other insects carry flower pollen from one flower to the next without ever bothering human noses.

Mold allergies are diverse. Mold is a spore that grows on rotting logs, dead leaves and grasses. While dry-weather mold species exist, numerous types of mold thrive in moist, rainy conditions, and release their spores overnight. During both the spring and drop allergy seasons, pollen is released mainly in the morning hours and travels best on dry, warm and breezy days.

Pollen count

How do scientists know how much pollen is in the air?

They set a trap. The trap — generally a glass plate or rod coated with adhesive — is analyzed every few hours, and the number of particles collected is then averaged to reflect the particles that would pass through the area in any 24-hour period. That measurement is converted to pollen per cubic meter. Mold counts work much the same way.

A pollen count is an imprecise measurement, scientists confess, and an arduous one — at the analysis stage, pollen grains are counted one by one under a microscope. It is also highly time-consuming to discern between types of pollen, so they are generally bundled into one variable.

Given the imprecise nature of the measurement, entire daily pollen counts are often reported simply as low, moderate or high.

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology provides up-to-date pollen counts for U.S. states.

Tests & diagnosis

A physician will consider patient history and act out a thorough physical examination if a person reports having hay-fever-like symptoms. If necessary, the physician will do an allergy test. According to the Mayo Clinic, people can get a skin-prick test, in which doctors prick the skin on a person’s arm or upper back with diverse substances to see if any cause an allergic reaction, such as a raised bump called a hive.

[7 Strange Signs You’re Having an Allergic Reaction]

Blood tests for allergies are also available. This test rates the immune system’s response to a specific allergen by measuring the quantity of allergy-causing antibodies in the bloodstream, according to the Mayo Clinic.