What are the signs of allergies in babies

Peanut Allergy: Early Exposure Is Key to Prevention

Posted on by Dr. Francis Collins

Credit: Thinkstock (BananaStock, Kenishirotie)

With peanut allergy on the rise in the United States, you’ve probably heard parents strategizing about ways to hold their kids from developing this potentially dangerous condition. But is it actually possible to prevent peanut allergy, and, if so, how do you go about doing it?

There’s an entirely new strategy emerging now! A group representing 26 professional organizations, advocacy groups, and federal agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has just issued new clinical guidelines aimed at preventing peanut allergy [1].

The guidelines propose that parents should introduce most babies to peanut-containing foods around the time they start eating other solid foods, typically 4 to 6 months of age. While early introduction is especially significant for kids at specific risk for developing allergies, it is also recommended that high-risk infants—those with a history of severe eczema and/or egg allergy—undergo a blood or skin-prick test before being given foods containing peanuts. The test results can assist to determine how, or even if, peanuts should be introduced in the youngsters’ diets.

This recommendation is turning older guidelines on their head.

In the past, pediatricians often advised parents to delay introducing peanuts and other common causes of food allergies into their kids’ diets. But in 2010, the thinking began shifting when a panel of food allergy experts concluded insufficient evidence existed to show that delaying the introduction of potentially problematic foods actually protected kids [2]. Still, there wasn’t a strategy waiting to assist prevent peanut or other food allergies.

As highlighted in a previous blog entry, the breakthrough came in 2015 with evidence from the NIH-funded Learning Early about Peanut Allergy (LEAP) trial [3].

That trial, involving hundreds of babies under a year ancient at high risk for developing peanut allergy, established that kids could be protected by regularly eating a favorite peanut butter-flavored Israeli snack called Bamba. A follow-up study later showed those kids remained allergy-free even after avoiding peanuts for a year [4].

Under the new recommendations, published simultaneously in six journals including the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, every infants who don’t already test positive for a peanut allergy are encouraged to eat peanut-enriched foods soon after they’ve tried a few other solid foods.

The guidelines are the first to offer specific recommendations for allergy prevention based on a child’s risk for peanut allergy:

  1. Infants at high risk for peanut allergy—based on severe eczema and/or egg allergy—are suggested to start consuming peanut-enriched foods between 4 to 6 months of age, but only after parents check with their health care providers. Infants already showing signs of peanut sensitivity in blood and/or skin-prick tests should attempt peanuts for the first time under the supervision of their doctor or allergist.

    In some cases, test results indicating a strong reaction to peanut protein might lead a specialist to recommend that a specific kid avoid peanuts.

  1. Infants with mild to moderate eczema should incorporate peanut-containing foods into their diets by about 6 months of age.

    What are the signs of allergies in babies

    It’s generally OK for them to own those first bites of peanut at home and without prior testing.

  1. Infants without eczema or any other food allergy aren’t likely to develop an allergy to peanuts. To be on the safe side, it’s still a excellent thought for them to start eating peanuts from an early age.
  2. A drop of a purified liquid form of the allergen is dropped onto the skin and the area is pricked with a little pricking device.If a kid reacts to the allergen, the skin will swell a little in that area.
  3. A little quantity of allergen is injected just under the skin. This test stings a little but isn’t extremely painful. After about 15 minutes, if a lump surrounded by a reddish area appears (like a mosquito bite) at the injection site, the test is positive.

Once peanut-containing foods own been consumed safely, regular exposure is key to allergy prevention.

The guidelines recommend that infants—and particularly those at the greatest risk of allergies—eat about 2 grams of peanut protein (the quantity in 2 teaspoons of peanut butter) 3 times a week.

Of course, it’s never a excellent thought to give infants whole peanuts, which are a choking hazard. Infants should instead get their peanuts in prepared peanut-containing foods or by stirring peanut powder into other familiar foods. They might also attempt peanut butter spread on bread or crackers.

In recent years, peanut allergy in the U.S. has almost quadrupled, making it the leading cause of death due to severe, food-related allergic reactions.

The hope is that, with widespread implementation of these new guidelines, numerous new cases of peanut allergy can now be prevented.

References:

[1] Addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy in the United States: Report of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored expert panel. Togias A, Cooper SF, Acebal ML, et al. Pediatr Dermatol.

2017 Jan;34(1):e1-e21.

[2] Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: report of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel. NIAID-Sponsored Expert Panel., Boyce JA, Assa’ad A, Burks AW, Jones SM, Sampson HA, Wood RA, Plaut M, Cooper SF, Fenton MJ, Arshad SH, Bahna SL, Beck LA, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Camargo CA Jr, Eichenfield L, Furuta GT, Hanifin JM, Jones C, Kraft M, Levy BD, Lieberman P, Luccioli S, McCall KM, Schneider LC, Simon RA, Simons FE, Teach SJ, Yawn BP, Schwaninger JM. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Dec;126(6 Suppl):S1-58.

[3] Randomized Trial of Peanut Consumption in Infants at Risk for Peanut Allergy.

Du Toit G, Roberts G, Sayre PH, Bahnson HT, Radulovic S, Santos AF, Brough HA, Phippard D, Basting M, Feeney M, Turcanu V, Sever ML, Gomez Lorenzo M, Plaut M, Lack G; the LEAP Study Team. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 23.

[4] Effect of Avoidance on Peanut Allergy after Early Peanut Consumption. Du Toit G, Sayre PH, Roberts G, Sever ML, Lawson K, Bahnson HT, Brough HA, Santos AF, Harris KM, Radulovic S, Basting M, Turcanu V, Plaut M, Lack G; Immune Tolerance Network LEAP-On Study Team..N Engl J Med.

2016 Apr 14;374(15):1435-43.

Links:

Guidelines for Clinicians and Patients for Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH)

Food Allergy (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH)

Learning Early about Peanut Allergy (LEAP) Study

NIH Support: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

About Seasonal Allergies

«Achoo!» It’s your son’s third sneezing fit of the morning, and as you hand him another tissue you wonder if these cold-like symptoms — the sneezing, congestion, and runny nose — own something to do with the recent weather change.

If he gets similar symptoms at the same time every year, you’re likely right: seasonal allergies are at work.

Seasonal allergies, sometimes called «hay fever» or seasonal allergic rhinitis, are allergy symptoms that happen during certain times of the year, generally when outdoor molds release their spores, and trees, grasses, and weeds release tiny pollen particles into the air to fertilize other plants.

The immune systems of people who are allergic to mold spores or pollen treat these particles (called allergens) as invaders and release chemicals, including histamine, into the bloodstream to defend against them.

It’s the release of these chemicals that causes allergy symptoms.

People can be allergic to one or more types of pollen or mold. The type someone is allergic to determines when symptoms happen. For example, in the mid-Atlantic states, tree pollination is February through May, grass pollen runs from May through June, and weed pollen is from August through October — so kids with these allergies are likely to own increased symptoms at those times. Mold spores tend to peak midsummer through the drop, depending on location.

Even kids who own never had seasonal allergies in years past can develop them.

Seasonal allergies can start at almost any age, though they generally develop by the time someone is 10 years ancient and reach their peak in the early twenties, with symptoms often disappearing later in adulthood.

Diagnosis

Seasonal allergies are fairly simple to identify because the pattern of symptoms returns from year to year following exposure to an allergen.

Talk with your doctor if you ponder your kid might own allergies. The doctor will enquire about symptoms and when they appear and, based on the answers and a physical exam, should be capable to make a diagnosis.

If not, the doctor may refer you to an allergist for blood tests or allergy skin tests.

To discover an allergy’s cause, allergists generally do skin tests in one of two ways:

  • nasal congestion
  • Your body can own allergens injected into it. This includes medicine given by needle and venom from insect stings and bites.
  • You can inhale allergens into your nose and your lungs. Many are little enough to float through the air.

    Examples are pollen, home dust, mold spores, cat and dog dander and latex dust.

  • You can ingest allergens by mouth. This includes food and medicines you eat or swallow.
  • clear, runny nose
  • itchy nose and/or throat
  • A drop of a purified liquid form of the allergen is dropped onto the skin and the area is pricked with a little pricking device.If a kid reacts to the allergen, the skin will swell a little in that area.
  • sneezing
  • coughing
  • A little quantity of allergen is injected just under the skin.

    This test stings a little but isn’t extremely painful. After about 15 minutes, if a lump surrounded by a reddish area appears (like a mosquito bite) at the injection site, the test is positive.

  • Your skin can absorb allergens. Plants such as poison ivy, sumac and oak can cause reactions when touched. Latex, metals, and ingredients in beauty care and household products are other examples.

Even if a skin test or a blood test shows an allergy, a kid must also own symptoms to be definitively diagnosed with an allergy. For example, a kid who has a positive test for grass pollen and sneezes a lot while playing in the grass would be considered allergic to grass pollen.

Signs and Symptoms

If your kid develops a «cold» at the same time every year, seasonal allergies might be to blame.

Allergy symptoms, which generally come on suddenly and final as endless as a person is exposed to the allergen, can include:

  1. itchy nose and/or throat
  2. clear, runny nose
  3. nasal congestion
  4. sneezing
  5. coughing

These symptoms often come with itchy, watery, and/or red eyes, which is called allergic conjunctivitis. Kids who own wheezing and shortness of breath in addition to these symptoms might own allergies that triggerasthma.

Related

Posted In: Health, Science

Tags: allergy, Bamba, kid health, eczema, egg allergy, food allergy, infants, LEAP, Learning Early about Peanut Allergy, nih dir, peanut, peanut allergies, peanut allergy, peanuts, pediatrics

en españolAlergia estacional (fiebre del heno)

Treatment

There are numerous ways to treat seasonal allergies, depending on how severe the symptoms are.

The most significant part of treatment is knowing what allergens are at work.

What are the signs of allergies in babies

Some kids can get relief by reducing or eliminating exposure to allergens that annoy them.

If certain seasons cause symptoms, hold the windows closed, use air conditioning if possible, and stay indoors when pollen/mold/weed counts are high.It’s also a excellent thought for kids with seasonal allergies to wash their hands or shower and change clothing after playing outside.

If reducing exposure isn’t possible or is ineffective, medicines can assist ease allergy symptoms. These may include decongestants, antihistamines, and nasal spray steroids. If symptoms can’t be managed with medicines, the doctor may recommend taking your kid to an allergist or immunologist for evaluation for allergy shots (immunotherapy), which can assist desensitize kids to specific allergens.

What Are the Symptoms of an Allergy?

An allergy occurs when the body’s immune system sees a substance as harmful and overreacts to it.

The symptoms that result are an allergic reaction. The substances that cause allergic reactions are allergens. Allergens can get into your body numerous ways to cause an allergic reaction.

  1. You can ingest allergens by mouth. This includes food and medicines you eat or swallow.
  2. Your body can own allergens injected into it. This includes medicine given by needle and venom from insect stings and bites.

  3. You can inhale allergens into your nose and your lungs. Many are little enough to float through the air. Examples are pollen, home dust, mold spores, cat and dog dander and latex dust.
  4. Your skin can absorb allergens. Plants such as poison ivy, sumac and oak can cause reactions when touched. Latex, metals, and ingredients in beauty care and household products are other examples.

Even if a skin test or a blood test shows an allergy, a kid must also own symptoms to be definitively diagnosed with an allergy.

For example, a kid who has a positive test for grass pollen and sneezes a lot while playing in the grass would be considered allergic to grass pollen.

Signs and Symptoms

If your kid develops a «cold» at the same time every year, seasonal allergies might be to blame. Allergy symptoms, which generally come on suddenly and final as endless as a person is exposed to the allergen, can include:

  1. itchy nose and/or throat
  2. clear, runny nose
  3. nasal congestion
  4. sneezing
  5. coughing

These symptoms often come with itchy, watery, and/or red eyes, which is called allergic conjunctivitis. Kids who own wheezing and shortness of breath in addition to these symptoms might own allergies that triggerasthma.

Related

Posted In: Health, Science

Tags: allergy, Bamba, kid health, eczema, egg allergy, food allergy, infants, LEAP, Learning Early about Peanut Allergy, nih dir, peanut, peanut allergies, peanut allergy, peanuts, pediatrics

en españolAlergia estacional (fiebre del heno)

Treatment

There are numerous ways to treat seasonal allergies, depending on how severe the symptoms are.

The most significant part of treatment is knowing what allergens are at work. Some kids can get relief by reducing or eliminating exposure to allergens that annoy them.

If certain seasons cause symptoms, hold the windows closed, use air conditioning if possible, and stay indoors when pollen/mold/weed counts are high.It’s also a excellent thought for kids with seasonal allergies to wash their hands or shower and change clothing after playing outside.

If reducing exposure isn’t possible or is ineffective, medicines can assist ease allergy symptoms.

These may include decongestants, antihistamines, and nasal spray steroids. If symptoms can’t be managed with medicines, the doctor may recommend taking your kid to an allergist or immunologist for evaluation for allergy shots (immunotherapy), which can assist desensitize kids to specific allergens.

What Are the Symptoms of an Allergy?

An allergy occurs when the body’s immune system sees a substance as harmful and overreacts to it.

The symptoms that result are an allergic reaction. The substances that cause allergic reactions are allergens. Allergens can get into your body numerous ways to cause an allergic reaction.

  1. You can ingest allergens by mouth. This includes food and medicines you eat or swallow.
  2. Your body can own allergens injected into it. This includes medicine given by needle and venom from insect stings and bites.
  3. You can inhale allergens into your nose and your lungs. Many are little enough to float through the air.

    Examples are pollen, home dust, mold spores, cat and dog dander and latex dust.

  4. Your skin can absorb allergens. Plants such as poison ivy, sumac and oak can cause reactions when touched. Latex, metals, and ingredients in beauty care and household products are other examples.


What Is Rhinitis (Nasal Allergies)?

The expression rhinitis means “inflammation of the nose.” When the nose becomes irritated by allergens or irritants, it may produce more and thicker mucus than usual. This drainage can irritate the back of the throat and cause coughing. Allergic reactions can also cause congestion, itchy nose or throat, sneezing, a runny nose and itchy, watery eyes.


What Is Sinusitis?

Sinusitis is an infection or inflammation of the sinuses.

sinus is a hollow space. There are numerous sinuses in the body, including four pairs inside the skull. They serve to lighten the skull and give resonance to the voice.

What are the signs of allergies in babies

These sinuses are lined with the same helpful of tissue that lines the inside of the nose. The same things that can cause swelling in the nose – such as allergies or infection – can also affect the sinuses. When the tissue inside the sinuses becomes inflamed, mucus discharge is increased. Over time, air trapped inside the swollen sinuses can create painful pressure inside the head. This is a sinus headache.

Medical Review November 2015.

SYMPTOMS OF AN ALLERGIC REACTION

The severity of symptoms during an allergic reaction can vary widely. Some of the symptoms of an allergic reaction include:

  1. Runny nose
  2. Vomiting
  3. Diarrhea
  4. Stomach cramps
  5. Sneezing
  6. Rashes
  7. Itchy, watery eyes
  8. Itchy nose
  9. Hives (a rash with raised red patches)
  10. Bloating
  1. Tongue swelling
  2. Chest tightness and losing your breath
  3. Feeling faint, light-headed or “blacking out”
  4. Wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe)
  5. Pain
  6. Cough
  7. Swelling
  8. Redness
  9. Throat closing
  10. A sense of “impending doom”

Some of these symptoms can be sign of a life-threatening allergic reaction.


What Is Anaphylaxis?

Anaphylaxis (anna-fih-LACK-sis) is a severe allergic reaction that can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.

It happens quick and may cause death.

What are the signs of allergies in babies

Symptoms generally involve more than one part of the body, such as the skin or mouth, the lungs, the heart and the gut. Study more about anaphylaxis.


What Are Skin Allergies?

Skin allergies happen when your skin comes in contact with an allergen that your skin is sensitive or allergic to. Also, allergies to other things, love food you eat or proteins you inhale or touch, may cause symptoms to appear on your skin. The allergic reaction generally appears within 48 hours after the initial exposure to the allergen.

What are the signs of allergies in babies

Symptoms often include the following: redness, swelling, blistering, itching, hives and rashes. The allergen doesn’t own to be new to you.

What are the signs of allergies in babies

It can be something you’ve been using or eating for numerous years. Common skin allergies include allergic contact dermatitis, eczema, chronic urticaria and angioedema.


What Are Eye Allergies?

Eye allergies are common. Eye allergies are a reaction to indoor and outdoor allergens that get into your eyes.The tissue that lines the inside of the eyelid and exterior of the eyeball becomes inflamed and swollen and leads to itching, redness, tearing and irritation of the eyes.


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