What are the most common food allergies in cats

What are the most common food allergies in cats

Some cats with sensitive stomachs may need a change in food. Your cat may not need to avoid eating a certain ingredient, but her type or formula of food could be part of her intolerance problem. One solution for a stressed kitty with digestive symptoms is switch to an easily digestible food.

Digestibility, in pet food research terms, describes how easily a cat or dog can process and get essential nutrients from what they eat. According to the Cameron County Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the factors that most influence digestibility are the ingredients, ingredient quality and processing methods used in making a food.

Foods for a sensitive stomach, love certainHill’s Presciption Diet® cat foods, include a combination of soluble and insoluble fibers, minerals and healthy fats to make them nutritious yet tender on your cat’s digestive system.


What to Do About Food Allergies

If you or your vet suspect a food allergy, then it may be time to attempt a hypoallergenic cat food. Enquire your vet to give you their best recommendations; the only way to accurately diagnose a food allergy is with a strict diet trial.

If you are thinking about heading below to the pet store and picking up some new food yourself instead of visiting the vet, wait a minute.

This is a common pet parent error when dealing with a cat’s sensitive stomach. Switching diets around will only confound the issue and make it harder for your vet to figure out the correct way to treat your kitty’s dietary woes.

Most over-the-counter diets are also not considered hypoallergenic. Even if a food is labeled «fish,» there can still be trace amounts of chicken, beef or eggs present because numerous types of pet foods are made in the same facilities with the same equipment. Just love a plain chocolate bar often warns «may contain traces of peanuts,» cross-contamination can affect pet food manufacturing similarly.

Proper food trials will take about 10–12 weeks in which your cat must eat her new food and nothing else — no treats, no scrambled eggs and no kitty toothpaste, unless it is cleared by your vet.

If your cat has a true food allergy, then any sensitive stomach issues should clear up in 2 to 4 weeks. External symptoms love itchy skin will take longer to resolve. A minimum 12-week meal trial is recommended for skin issues because it takes that endless for a cat to grow a new outer layer of skin cells (human skin takes about 39 days to turn over, according to Trade Insider). If you own been religious about your diet trial but your cat is still having problems, then the issue isn’t a food allergy and it’s time to check for other conditions.


References

  • ^Guaguère, E (1995). «Food intolerance in cats with cutaneous manifestations: a review of 17 cases».

    European Journal of Companion Animal Practice. 5: 27–35.

  • ^«Feline Food Allergies».

    What are the most common food allergies in cats

    www.vet.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2017-11-29.

  • ^ abcdefgCase, Linda (2010). Canine and Feline Nutrition-E-Book. 3251 Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby, Inc. p. 400.CS1 maint: location (link)
  • ^Scott, D. (2001). «Skin Immune System and Allergic Skin Diseases». Muller & Kirk’s Little Animal Dermatology. pp. 543–666. doi:10.1016/B978-0-7216-7618-0.50012-2. ISBN .
  • ^Carlotti, Didier N.

    (2013). «Cutaneous Manifestations of Food Hypersensitivity». Veterinary Allergy. pp. 108–114. doi:10.1002/9781118738818.ch16. ISBN .

  • ^Leistra, M.; Willemse, T. (December 2002). «Double-blind evaluation of two commercial hypoallergenic diets in cats with adverse food reactions».

    What are the most common food allergies in cats

    Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 4 (4): 185–188. doi:10.1053/jfms.2001.0193. ISSN 1098-612X. PMID 12468310.

  • ^ abcdefGaschen, Frédéric P.; Merchant, Sandra R. (March 2011). «Adverse Food Reactions in Dogs and Cats». Veterinary Clinics of North America: Little Animal Practice. 41 (2): 361–379.

    doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2011.02.005. PMID 21486641.

  • ^DACVD, Hilary A. Jackson BVM&S DVD. «Dermatologic manifestations and nutritional management of adverse food reactions». dvm360.com. Retrieved 2017-11-29.
  • ^«Feline Atopic Dermatitis — Integumentary System — Merck Veterinary Manual». Merck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved 2018-01-02.
  • ^ abCarlotti, Didier N.; Remy, Isabelle; Prost, Christine (1990-06-01). «Food Allergy In Dogs And Cats. A Review and Report of 43 Cases».

    What are the most common food allergies in cats

    Veterinary Dermatology. 1 (2): 55–62. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3164.1990.tb00080.x. ISSN 1365-3164.

  • ^ abcCase, Linda (2010). Canine and Feline Nutrition-E-Book. 3251 Riverpool Lane, Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby, Inc. p. 399.CS1 maint: location (link)
  • ^ abCave, Nicholas J. (November 2006). «Hydrolyzed Protein Diets for Dogs and Cats». Veterinary Clinics of North America: Little Animal Practice. 36 (6): 1251–1268.

    doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2006.08.008. PMID 17085233.

  • ^ abcVerlinden, A.; Hesta, M.; Millet, S.; Janssens, G. P.J. (18 January 2007). «Food Allergy in Dogs and Cats: A Review». Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 46 (3): 259–273. doi:10.1080/10408390591001117. PMID 16527756.
  • ^Zoran, Deb (November 2003). «Nutritional management of gastrointestinal disease». Clinical Techniques in Little Animal Practice. 18 (4): 211–217. doi:10.1016/S1096-2867(03)00074-4.

    PMID 14738201.

  • ^ abcVogelnest, LJ; Cheng, KY (November 2013). «Cutaneous adverse food reactions in cats: retrospective evaluation of 17 cases in a dermatology referral population (2001-2011)». Australian Veterinary Journal. 91 (11): 443–451. doi:10.1111/avj.12112. PMID 24571298.

A cat showing extreme signs of pruritis.

The diagnosis of cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs) in dogs and cats relies on the performance of dietary restriction-provocation trials.

Knowing the most common offending allergens in these species would assist determine which food challenges should be performed first to faster confirm the diagnosis of CAFR.

Evaluation of evidence

Altogether, at least one offending food allergen source was reported in each of the 297 dogs included in the selected studies [2, 4, 5, 7–13, 16–18, 20, 21, 23–26] (Table 1). The most frequently reported food allergens involved in CAFRs in dogs were beef (102 dogs, 34 %), dairy products (51 dogs, 17 %), chicken (45 dogs, 15 %), wheat (38 dogs, 13 %) and lamb (14, 5 %).

Other less commonly reported offending food sources were soy (18 dogs, 6 %), corn (13 dogs, 4 %), egg (11 dogs, 4 %), pork (7 dogs, 2 %), fish and rice (5 dogs each, 2 %). Barley, rabbit, chocolate, kidney bean and tomato were also reported as food allergens for single dogs.

At least one food allergen was identified in each one of the 78 cats reported in selected articles [1–3, 6, 14, 19, 22, 27] (Table 2) . The food sources most frequently causing CAFR in cats were beef (14 cats, 18 %), fish (13 cats, 17 %), chicken (4 cats, 5 %), wheat, corn and dairy products (3 cats each, 4 %) and lamb (2 cats, 3 %).

Egg, barley and rabbit were also reported as offending allergens in individual cats.

There were several limitations in interpreting the data presented. In most studies details of the provocation with individual allergens were not provided. Furthermore, most reports only listed allergens associated with a deterioration of signs upon rechallenge, but not those associated with negative provocations; this could possibly bias the estimation of the prevalence of offending allergens. Only five studies had used a standardized rechallenge sequence in dogs [7–10, 13]. In these studies, beef, chicken, wheat, soy and dairy products were the most common involved allergens, reflecting the data gathered from the literature.

In cats, only one study attempted those uniform provocations [27], and beef, fish and chicken were the allergens most commonly involved in that study. In addition the previous diet history was generally not provided, thereby preventing a clinically relevant interpretation of the data. Thus, the information gathered herein does not permit a true estimate of the prevalence of offending allergens nor any statement about the likelihood of positive provocations in relation to previously fed foods.

Finally, the offending allergens found herein could merely reflect pet feeding habits in the preceding decades, and these allergens could change once new pet foods become fashionable and used more frequently.

Structured question

In dogs and cats suspected of CAFR, which food sources are most often reported to induce clinical signs after challenge?

Search strategy

The CAB Abstracts and Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded) databases were searched on January 16, 2015, using the following string: ((dog or dogs or canine) or (cat or cats or feline)) and (food or diet*) and (allerg* or atop* or hypersens* or intolerance).

The search was limited to the period 1985 to 2015. Bibliographies of identified articles were then further searched for additional relevant reports.

Identified evidence

Our literature search identified 140 and 1534 citations in CAB Abstracts and Web of Science, of which three [1–3] and 15 [1, 3–17] respectively contained relevant information. Citations that were not selected were those of articles not specifically identifying offending allergens in dogs and cats exhibiting clinical signs of CAFR. Six more relevant citations were identified in the bibliography of articles found with the electronic search [18–22], and three sources were abstracts of recent conference proceedings [23–25].

Offending allergens were reported in case reports [12, 14, 18, 22, 26] or case series of dogs and cats with clinical evidence of adverse food reaction [1–5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 25, 27], in studies evaluating diagnostic techniques for adverse food reactions [5, 8, 9, 11, 17, 23, 24] or (rarely) in studies evaluating reaction patterns such as vasculitis or symmetrical lupoid onychitis with multiple causes [20, 21]. A positive rechallenge was considered the only solid evidence for identifying an offending allergen.

From these selected publications, we added the number of cases in which positive challenges had occurred with the various food items, and the frequency of reaction among entire number of dogs was calculated.

Clinical scenarios

You own two patients: The first is a 1-year-old male Labrador retriever with a 3-month history of pruritus and recurrent mucous diarrhea. This dog has been eating a commercial diet for the final 6 months. On physical examination, you do not detect anomalies besides soft stools on rectal palpation. Your second patient is a 2-year-old female spayed Persian cat that has been scratching her face for the final year.

This self-trauma only responds partially to high dose of prednisolone. Physical examination reveals the cat to be thinner than expected and to own excoriations on the head and neck. You suspect that both patients could be reactive to their commercial diets, but you wonder which one of the ingredients listed on the labels would be the most likely sources of allergens.

Conclusion and implication for practitioners

In a dog living in Australia, Europe or North America, the allergens most likely contributing to CAFRs are beef, dairy products, chicken, wheat and lamb.

What are the most common food allergies in cats

As a result, these foods should be the first used for allergen provocation for CAFR diagnosis. In cats, the most common allergens causing CAFRs are beef, fish and chicken.

Importantly, the identified evidence does not permit an estimation of the genuine prevalence of offending allergens in the population of dogs and cats with CAFR, as animals were generally only challenged with a little number of—but not all— allergens. As a result, the true prevalence of each offending allergens in dogs and cats is likely to be higher than that reported above.

Importantly, every these estimates of prevalence will need to be reevaluated with prospective studies performing controlled rechallenges in a larger number of animals with a detailed history of their previous dietary exposure.

One of the more common complaints vets hear from cat parents is that their cat has a sensitive stomach and vomits — maybe once a week, maybe twice a week, but always on the carpet (or somewhere else that’s hard to wash).

Even though chronic and intermittent vomiting can happen regularly, it is never normal, even if there is plant material or a hairball in the puddle on the floor.

There are two other common reasons your cat may experience a sensitive stomach and vomiting: food intolerance and food allergies.

A cat showing extreme signs of pruritis.

The diagnosis of cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs) in dogs and cats relies on the performance of dietary restriction-provocation trials. Knowing the most common offending allergens in these species would assist determine which food challenges should be performed first to faster confirm the diagnosis of CAFR.

Evaluation of evidence

Altogether, at least one offending food allergen source was reported in each of the 297 dogs included in the selected studies [2, 4, 5, 7–13, 16–18, 20, 21, 23–26] (Table 1).

The most frequently reported food allergens involved in CAFRs in dogs were beef (102 dogs, 34 %), dairy products (51 dogs, 17 %), chicken (45 dogs, 15 %), wheat (38 dogs, 13 %) and lamb (14, 5 %). Other less commonly reported offending food sources were soy (18 dogs, 6 %), corn (13 dogs, 4 %), egg (11 dogs, 4 %), pork (7 dogs, 2 %), fish and rice (5 dogs each, 2 %). Barley, rabbit, chocolate, kidney bean and tomato were also reported as food allergens for single dogs.

At least one food allergen was identified in each one of the 78 cats reported in selected articles [1–3, 6, 14, 19, 22, 27] (Table 2) . The food sources most frequently causing CAFR in cats were beef (14 cats, 18 %), fish (13 cats, 17 %), chicken (4 cats, 5 %), wheat, corn and dairy products (3 cats each, 4 %) and lamb (2 cats, 3 %).

Egg, barley and rabbit were also reported as offending allergens in individual cats.

There were several limitations in interpreting the data presented. In most studies details of the provocation with individual allergens were not provided. Furthermore, most reports only listed allergens associated with a deterioration of signs upon rechallenge, but not those associated with negative provocations; this could possibly bias the estimation of the prevalence of offending allergens.

Only five studies had used a standardized rechallenge sequence in dogs [7–10, 13]. In these studies, beef, chicken, wheat, soy and dairy products were the most common involved allergens, reflecting the data gathered from the literature. In cats, only one study attempted those uniform provocations [27], and beef, fish and chicken were the allergens most commonly involved in that study. In addition the previous diet history was generally not provided, thereby preventing a clinically relevant interpretation of the data.

What are the most common food allergies in cats

Thus, the information gathered herein does not permit a true estimate of the prevalence of offending allergens nor any statement about the likelihood of positive provocations in relation to previously fed foods. Finally, the offending allergens found herein could merely reflect pet feeding habits in the preceding decades, and these allergens could change once new pet foods become fashionable and used more frequently.

Structured question

In dogs and cats suspected of CAFR, which food sources are most often reported to induce clinical signs after challenge?

Search strategy

The CAB Abstracts and Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded) databases were searched on January 16, 2015, using the following string: ((dog or dogs or canine) or (cat or cats or feline)) and (food or diet*) and (allerg* or atop* or hypersens* or intolerance).

The search was limited to the period 1985 to 2015. Bibliographies of identified articles were then further searched for additional relevant reports.

Identified evidence

Our literature search identified 140 and 1534 citations in CAB Abstracts and Web of Science, of which three [1–3] and 15 [1, 3–17] respectively contained relevant information. Citations that were not selected were those of articles not specifically identifying offending allergens in dogs and cats exhibiting clinical signs of CAFR.

Six more relevant citations were identified in the bibliography of articles found with the electronic search [18–22], and three sources were abstracts of recent conference proceedings [23–25]. Offending allergens were reported in case reports [12, 14, 18, 22, 26] or case series of dogs and cats with clinical evidence of adverse food reaction [1–5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 25, 27], in studies evaluating diagnostic techniques for adverse food reactions [5, 8, 9, 11, 17, 23, 24] or (rarely) in studies evaluating reaction patterns such as vasculitis or symmetrical lupoid onychitis with multiple causes [20, 21].

A positive rechallenge was considered the only solid evidence for identifying an offending allergen. From these selected publications, we added the number of cases in which positive challenges had occurred with the various food items, and the frequency of reaction among entire number of dogs was calculated.

Clinical scenarios

You own two patients: The first is a 1-year-old male Labrador retriever with a 3-month history of pruritus and recurrent mucous diarrhea. This dog has been eating a commercial diet for the final 6 months.

On physical examination, you do not detect anomalies besides soft stools on rectal palpation. Your second patient is a 2-year-old female spayed Persian cat that has been scratching her face for the final year. This self-trauma only responds partially to high dose of prednisolone. Physical examination reveals the cat to be thinner than expected and to own excoriations on the head and neck. You suspect that both patients could be reactive to their commercial diets, but you wonder which one of the ingredients listed on the labels would be the most likely sources of allergens.

Conclusion and implication for practitioners

In a dog living in Australia, Europe or North America, the allergens most likely contributing to CAFRs are beef, dairy products, chicken, wheat and lamb.

As a result, these foods should be the first used for allergen provocation for CAFR diagnosis. In cats, the most common allergens causing CAFRs are beef, fish and chicken.

Importantly, the identified evidence does not permit an estimation of the genuine prevalence of offending allergens in the population of dogs and cats with CAFR, as animals were generally only challenged with a little number of—but not all— allergens. As a result, the true prevalence of each offending allergens in dogs and cats is likely to be higher than that reported above.

Importantly, every these estimates of prevalence will need to be reevaluated with prospective studies performing controlled rechallenges in a larger number of animals with a detailed history of their previous dietary exposure.

One of the more common complaints vets hear from cat parents is that their cat has a sensitive stomach and vomits — maybe once a week, maybe twice a week, but always on the carpet (or somewhere else that’s hard to wash).

What are the most common food allergies in cats

Even though chronic and intermittent vomiting can happen regularly, it is never normal, even if there is plant material or a hairball in the puddle on the floor.

There are two other common reasons your cat may experience a sensitive stomach and vomiting: food intolerance and food allergies.


Hypoallergenic elimination diets for cats

Further information: Elimination diet

Limited ingredient diets

Main article: Limited ingredient cat diet (LID)

A limited-ingredient diet, also known as limited-antigen food,[8] is an elimination diet that restricts the problematic foods that cause a reaction.

Generally these diets focus on removing specific proteins (protein-elimination diets) due to dietary allergies generally being caused by water-soluble glycoproteins,[9][10] but they can also be targeted towards the removal of gluten/wheat, vegetables, or a combination of both.[9] In commercially available versions of these diets, producers generally include one protein and one carbohydrate source, in an effort to minimize reactions to any foods.[9]

Homemade diets

See also: Cat food § Homemade food

Homemade diets are a type of elimination diet, which are made specifically for the cat with allergies, either by the owner or a third-party person love a chef.[11] Studies propose that commercial elimination diets may still react negatively with a cat, even if they are devoid of the target protein/other problematic foods.[11] Numerous pet owners, for this reason, select the homemade option, as it allows them to personally identify the pet’s history, tailor the diet with various ingredients, and consider the process a bonding experience.[9][11] Some drawbacks to a homemade diet are the time needed to store for the ingredients and the potential financial setback.[9]

Also, homemade diets are generally nutritionally deficient.

For example, a study found that 90% of homemade elimination diets are not adequate in terms of nutrition.[9] However, homemade diets are a grand way to determine which ingredient is causing the negative symptoms in the cat.[9]

Hydrolyzed proteins

Main article: Hydrolyzed protein

Hydrolyzed proteins are often used as the primary source of protein in a diet, particularly in elimination diets, since these proteins do not cause allergenic responses.[12] This is because the digestive tract breaks below the protein into individual amino acids that the body is unable to recognize as the offending protein, allowing the protein source to bypass the allergenic immune response associated with IgE.[13] This avoidance of the immune reaction allows the animal to eat a sufficient protein source without the immune system interfering.[13]

Novel proteins

A novel protein is a protein source used in hypoallergenic diets to which the cat has not previously been exposed.[14] Common examples of novel proteins are lamb, rabbit, venison, duck, elk, kangaroo, ostrich, emu, goose and goat.[8] However, there is a chance of cross-reactivity when there is a higher taxonomic relationship between the two species.

For example, cross-reactivity could be caused by other ruminant meats if the cat reacted negatively to beef, or avian meats if the cat reacted negatively to chicken.[8]

Novel proteins can be used in elimination diets as well for long-term management. Numerous commercialized novel protein diets are nutritionally adequate and balanced. They own only one protein source and one carbohydrate source that the cats are unlikely to own ingested before.[15] Owners are more likely to be compliant when feeding a commercial novel protein diet than when feeding a home cooked diet.[8] This is due to the fact that it can be hard to obtain novel proteins for food preparation,[15] and it takes less time to provide a commercial diet than to prepare a home cooked one.[8] In the early ’90s, an experiment was performed showing that novel protein diets had a 70 to 80% success rate.[14] However, commercialized novel protein diets are not always effective, since they are not always tested on animals that own food sensitivities, and the manufacturing process of the diets can cause adverse reactions due to the inclusion of additives which may be allergens to some cats.[14] It is recommended that human-grade meat be used in the diet instead of pet food meats since pet food meats can include preservatives, which can be detrimental to the success of the diet.[15] Also, a study showed that if the processing machinery was not cleaned properly, ground meat that came from one animal could be contaminated with the ground meat from another animal.

This study found that four commercial diets using venison included products that were not on the label. Soy, beef and poultry were found in three of the diets, which are common antigens in cats. However, if the commercial novel protein diet does not cause an adverse reaction in the cat, it can be used endless term.[8]


Food Allergies

Unlike an intolerance, a food allergy can affect both the gut and the skin, and is an abnormal immune response to an otherwise safe ingredient.

Cat allergies are generally to a protein source such as fish or chicken. Cats most commonly develop food allergies between the ages of 2 and 6, and must be repeatedly exposed to the offending allergen (for example, by eating it every day) to develop signs of a problem. Those signs can include vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence, loss of appetite, itchy skin, hair loss or reddened skin.

Believe it or not, grains such as corn are not the most common cause of food allergies in cats. If you’ve ever wrongly suspected your kitty may be reacting to an ingredient, however, you’re not alone: Veterinary Pratice News writes that most «food allergies» are misdiagnosed by concerned pet parents during a simple stomach upset.

What are the most common food allergies in cats

According to Tufts University Cummings Veterinary Medical Middle, the most common reported allergies for cats and dogs are chicken, beef, dairy, and eggs (and fish for cats).


Allergy identification and treatment

While it is possible to identify what type of symptoms the cat is suffering from, it is best to seek attention from a veterinarian to identify the best treatment possible. In order to identify to which allergens the cat is allergic, veterinarians will commonly use a serum allergy test. Veterinarians will often recommend over the counter allergy relief products to alleviate mild problems.

If the allergy is more severe, allergy immunotherapy may be recommended.[citation needed]


Food Intolerance

There are numerous things inside and exterior the cat gastrointestinal system that can cause a cat’s sensitive stomach, including food intolerance and food allergies. Though they sound similar, these two issues are not the same thing.

Food intolerance can happen in cats of every ages, and it can be caused by food poisoning from spoiled food your cat mistakenly ate or a sensitivity to a certain ingredient. A sensitive stomach from food intolerance can also happen when a cat lacks an enzyme needed to fully digest a certain food, has irritable bowel syndrome or is stressed.

Many things can cause stress in a cat, including boarding, moving, adding a new pet to the family, dental disease or pain from arthritis.

If you notice that your cat is vomiting or has diarrhea and you suspect she may own a sensitive stomach, don’t change her food just yet. There may be another medical reason for her upsets. If her vomiting or diarrhea is severe or doesn’t clear up within 24 hours, it is time to get your veterinarian involved.


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